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题名: 密云水库流域土地利用变化对生态系统服务功能的影响
作者: 李屹峰
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 2012
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 郑华
关键词: 生态系统服务功能 ; ecosystem services ; 密云水库流域 ; Miyun resorioer watershed ; 土地利用 ; land use ; InVEST模型 ; InVEST model
其他题名: Effects of land use change on ecosystem services in Miyun reservoir watershed
中文摘要:       土地利用变化是生态系统服务功能变化的主要驱动力之一,定量评估土地利用变化对服务功能的影响,并通过土地利用管理策略来调控和保育生态系统服务功能是当前的研究热点。本研究以人地关系紧张、生态系统服务功能变化剧烈的密云水库流域为对象,分析流域1990-2009年土地利用变化,采用生态系统服务功能评估软件InVEST (Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs)中的“产水量”、“土壤保持”、“水质净化”模型,研究流域土地利用变化对生态系统服务功能的影响,评价区域合作措施植树造林和稻改旱工程对生态系统服务功能产生的效应,比较不同土地利用情景生态系统服务功能特征。结果表明: (1)1990-2009年密云水库流域土地利用变化剧烈,林地面积增加了30%,农田和草地面积分别减少了30%和47%,其中1990年有65%的草地转变成林地,19%的农田转成草地; (2)随着土地利用的变化,服务功能相应产生着显著变化,1990-2009年,尽管流域生态系统土壤保持功能和固碳服务分别增加了46%和19%,但水资源供给服务和水质净化功能却分别减少了3%和55%; (3)在气候条件一致的情况下,1990-2009年的植树造林措施能使流域生态系统土壤保持功能、水质净化功能和固碳服务分别提高34%、14%和30%,但将损害生态系统15%的水资源供给服务和14%的农产品供给服务;稻改旱工程仅能提高0.5%的水资源供给服务,并未实现显著增加水量的目标; (4)“扩张的林地改草地”、 “农田扩张”、 “80m河岸阔叶林防护带+宜农土地开发”、“80m河岸草地防护带+宜农土地开发”4种土地利用情景中,前三种情景难以有效权衡流域生态系统水资源供给、农产品供给功能与土壤保持、水质净化、固碳功能,而“80m河岸草地防护带+宜农土地开发”情景能使流域生态系统土壤保持功能、水质净化功能、农产品供给服务和水资源供给服务分别提高28%、63%、7%和5%,仅削弱6%的固碳服务,该情景能较好的权衡流域生态系统产品提供功能与调节功能。 可见,大面积植树造林会显著削弱密云流域水资源供给功能,不是权衡生态系统多种服务功能的有效措施,加强河岸防护带建设、并适当扩张宜农耕地能改善水质、增加水量,有效权衡生态系统的供给与调节功能,是密云水库流域较好的土地利用模式。
英文摘要:       Ecosystem services are crucial basis of human existence, and land use change is important driving force of ecosystem services. Taking quantitative assessment of the effects of land use change on ecosystem services and adopting land use management to regulate and protect ecosystem services is hot spot of ecology research. This research took Miyun reservoir watershed, in which the man-land relationship is strained and ecosystem services change is dramatic, as study area. We analyzed land use change, and took “Water Yield”, “Sediment Retention”, “Water Purification” models of InVEST (Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs) model to simulate and map changes of ecosystem services, and measured the effects of “Afforestation” and “Convert Paddy to Dry Land”, and analyzed characteristics of ecosystem services in different land use scenarios. Our results showed: (1) During the past 20 years (1990-2009), there are extraordinary land use changes in Miyun reservoir watershed. Farmland and grassland decreased by 30% and 47%, respectively, and forest expanded about 30%. (2) As the changes of land use, ecosystem services changed significantly. Between 1990 and 2009, sediment retention and carbon sequestration services increased by 46% and 19%, respectively, however, water yield and water purification declined by 3% and 55%, respectively. (3) In the same climate condition, afforestation separately improved sediment retention, water purification and carbon sequestration services by 34%, 14% and 30%, but reduced water yield and agricultural product by 15% and 14%; Convert Paddy to Dry Land only increased water yield slightly (0.5%), and it failed achieve the aim to increase water yield. (4) “change forest expansion to grass expansion” scenario, “agricultural expansion” scenario and “80m-width riparian protection zone of broadleaf trees plus arable land development” scenario couldn’t trade off water purification, agricultural product, sediment retention, water purification and carbon sequestration services. In “80m-width riparian protection zone of grass plus arable land development” scenario, carbon sequestration declined about 6%, however, sediment retention, and services separately increased 28%, 63% and 7%, especially water yield showed rise of 5%. Therefore, “80m-width riparian protection zone of grass plus arable land development” scenario can improve water quality and increase water yield, and it is the optimal choice for sustainable management of land use in Miyun reservoir watershed. In conclusion, Afforestation in Miyun reservoir watershed has weakened the water resource supply capacity, so it isn’t the effective measure to trade off ecosystem services; setting up riparian protection zone and appropriately expanding farmland to arable land can effectively trade off ecosystem’s regulation service and provisioning service, so it’s a excellent land use pattern for Miyun reservoir watershed.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/35126
Appears in Collections:城市与区域生态国家重点实验室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
李屹峰. 密云水库流域土地利用变化对生态系统服务功能的影响[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2012.
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