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题名: 区域森林生态系统水文调节功能空间特征评价
作者: 方瑜
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 2012
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 欧阳志云
关键词: 水文调节功能 ; hydrological regulation service ; 森林生态系统 ; forest ecosystem ; 调节能力 ; regulation capacity ; 空间格局 ; spatial distribution ; 人类活动 ; human activities
其他题名: An Assessment of the spatial characteristics of hydrological regulation services of forest ecosystems at the regional scale
中文摘要:       水文调节是森林生态系统重要服务功能之一,在区域尺度上评估森林生态系统水文调节功能空间格局,对于科学认识和合理保护森林生态系统水文调节功能具有重要意义。本研究应用文献收集、模型构建和信息系统技术等手段,构建了基于水文调节功能形成机制的区域尺度森林生态系统水文调节功能的评估模型,分析了不同类型森林生态系统的水文调节特征,评估了区域尺度森林生态系统的水文调节功能,比较分析了不同类型森林、不同自然区的水文调节功能,并探讨了人类活动对区域森林生态系统水文调节功能的影响。主要结果为: (1)不同森林生态系统具有不同的水文调节功能,其强弱顺序为:天然阔叶林>针阔混交林>天然针叶林>人工阔叶林>人工针叶林;针叶林从北向南水文调节能力减弱、阔叶林从北向南水文调节能力逐渐增强。 (2)地带性森林生态系统的水文调节功能表现出不同的时间特征:①月尺度上,亚热带和热带竹林、亚热带和热带针叶林、亚热带常绿落叶阔叶林和亚热带落叶阔叶林的水文调节功能较稳定,而人工阔叶林、温带落叶阔叶林、温带针阔混交林和寒温带和温带山地针叶林的水文调节功能稳定性较差;②干湿季尺度上,温带针阔混交林干湿季水文调节量差异最大,其次为寒温带和温带山地针叶林、温带落叶阔叶林;③年尺度上,亚热带、热带针叶林、温带落叶阔叶林和亚热带常绿阔叶林的水文调节量占全部森林总调节量的75%左右;单位面积水文调节量,则以热带雨林和季雨林最高; (3)不同自然地理区森林生态系统水文调节功能也表现出不同的时间特征:①月尺度上,华中、华南湿润亚热带地区森林生态系统水文调节功能稳定性最强,东北湿润、半湿润温带地区和内蒙古温带草原区森林生态系统水文调节功能稳定性较弱;②干湿季尺度上,内蒙古温带草原区森林生态系统水文调节功能干湿季差异最大,华中、华南湿润亚热带区森林生态系统水文调节功能的差异最小;③年尺度上,华中、华南湿润亚热带地区和东北湿润、半湿润温带地区森林生态系统的水文调节量合占总调节量的90%左右;单位面积水文调节量则华南热带湿润地区森林生态系统最高; (4)我国森林生态系统的水文调节功能在空间上呈现出由东南向内陆逐渐减少的趋势,长江以南降水量较高地区的森林生态系统发挥着重要的水文调节功能,包括长江中下游、四川盆地、江南丘陵、云桂粤及台湾地区;而东北东部、内蒙古东北部、华北、陕甘宁及新疆西北部的森林生态系统水文调节量较低。 (5)人类活动对水文调节功能的影响分析表明,随着经济、社会活动的加强,区域水文调节功能减弱。在追求经济发展的同时,应规范人类活动,注重生态系统所能提供的生命支持服务,实现社会、经济、生态的协调可持续发展。
英文摘要:       Hydrological regulation is one of the most significant forest ecosystem services. Spatial pattern assessment of forest hydrological regulation services at the regional scale will have essential implications for their scientific cognition and reasonable conservation. With the application of literature collection, model construction and Geographic Information System, this study analyzed the hydrological regulation characteristics of different forest ecosystems, developed an assessment model of hydrological regulation service of forest ecosystems at the regional scale considering the formation mechanism of hydrological regulation service, assessed the hydrological regulation services of forest ecosystems in China, and compared the hydrological regulation services of different types of forests and different natural zones separately. Finally, the effect of human activities on hydrological regulation services was also analyzed. Our main conclusions include: (1) Various forest ecosystems performed different hydrological regulation functions. The hydrological regulation capability decreased as the following trend, natural broadleaf forest> mixed needleleaf and broadleaf forest>natural needleleaf forest> man-made broadleaf forest> man-made needleleaf forest. The regulation ability of needleleaf forests weakened from north to south, however, the broadleaf forests demonstrated the opposite regularity on the regulation ability. (2) Zonal forest ecosystems showed varied temporal characteristics on the hydrological regulation services: a) on the monthly dynamics, Subtropical, Tropical Bomboo Forest, Subtropical and Tropical Needleleaf Forest, Subtropical Mixed Broadleaf Evergreen and Deciduous Forest and Subtropical Broadleaf Deciduous Forest displayed high stability, while Man-made Broadleaf Forest, Temperate Broadleaf Deciduous Forest, Temperate Mixed Needleleaf and Broadleaf Deciduous Forest and Cold-temperate Mountains Needleleaf Forest presented low stability; b) on the variation of dry season and wet season, Temperate Mixed Needleleaf and Broadleaf Deciduous Forest had the largest variation, followed by Cold-temperate Mountains Needleleaf Forest and Temperate Broadleaf Deciduous Forest; c) on the annual hydrological regulation quantity, Subtropical and Tropical Needleleaf Forest, Temperate Broadleaf Deciduous Forest and Subtropical Broadleaf Evergreen Forest developed 75% of the total hydrological regulation function of the forest ecosystems; and Tropical Rain Forest and Monsoon Rain Forest demonstrated the strongest regulation power with the highest hydrological regulation quantity per unit area. (3) Temporal variation was also found on the hydrological regulation services of forests in different natural zones: a) on the monthly dynamics, humid subtropical zone in Center and Southern China presented high stability, while humid, semi-humid temperate zone in Northeast China and Inner Mongolian temperate grassland zone showed relatively low stability; b) on the variation of dry season and wet season, the variation of Inner Mongolian temperate grassland zone was the most obvious, while humid subtropical zone in Center and Southern China had the low variation; c) on the annual hydrological regulation quantity, humid subtropical zone in Center and Southern China together with humid, semi-humid temperate zone in Northeast China accounted for 90% of the total hydrological regulation quantity of all the natural zones, and humid tropical zone in Southern China had the largest hydrological regulation quantity per unit area, therefore demonstrating strong hydrological regulation service. (4) The hydrological regulation service of forest ecosystems demonstrated a decreasing trend from the southeast to the inland. The vast areas south of the Yangtze River with high precipitation developed the primary hydrological regulation service, including the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, the hilly areas of southern Yangtze river, the Sichuan basins, Yunnan, Guangxi, Guangdong and Taiwan areas. On the contrary, the forest ecosystems in the northeast, the northeastern of Inner Mongolia, North China, Shaanxi-Gansu-Ningxia and the northwestern of Xinjiang displayed relatively weak hydrological regulation function. (5) From the analysis of the effect of human activities on the hydrological regulation services, it was concluded that the regional hydrological regulation service was undermined with the intensification of social and economic activities. Thus, it was highly recommended that human activities should be reasonably regulated and the life-supporting function should also be emphasized while pursuing the economic development so as to achieve the social, economic and ecological sustainable development.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/35129
Appears in Collections:城市与区域生态国家重点实验室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
方瑜. 区域森林生态系统水文调节功能空间特征评价[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2012.
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