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题名: 全氟化合物的植物吸收、传输与代谢研究
作者: 刘雨
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 2012
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 温蓓
关键词: 全氟化合物 ; perfluorinated compounds ; 植物吸收 ; plant uptake ; 毒性 ; toxicity ; 水通道蛋白 ; aquaporin ; 阴离子通道 ; anion channels
其他题名: Uptake, translocation and metabolism of perfluorinated compounds by plants
中文摘要:       1)通过温室土培实验,研究了污泥施用土壤中绿豆(glycine max Merr.)、生菜(Lactuca sativa L.)、苜蓿(Medicago sativa L.)、黑麦草(Lolium multiflorum L.)、玉米(Zea mays L.)、水萝卜(Raphnus sativus L.)和大豆(Glycine max L. Merrill)等7种植物对全氟辛烷磺酸(PFOS)、全氟辛酸(PFOA)和N-乙基全氟辛基磺酰胺乙酸(N-EtFOSAA)的植物吸收、传输和降解行为。在7种植物的根中都检测到了高浓度的PFCs,PFOS、PFOA和N-EtFOSAA的最大根富集因子(Root Concentration Factors, RCFs)分别为4.99、10.18和1.37。绿豆、生菜、苜蓿和黑麦草对PFOA的富集能力明显高于PFOS,水萝卜对PFOS和PFOA的富集能力大小相当,而玉米和大豆对PFOS的富集显著高于PFOA;生菜对N-EtFOSAA的RCF最大为1.4,绿豆的最小为0.52,而玉米、大豆、水萝卜、苜蓿和黑麦草对N-EtFOSAA的RCF值在0.6-1.0之间。PFOS和PFOA在植物的茎与叶样品中都有检出,这说明存在植物体内的向上传输。水萝卜、绿豆、生菜、苜蓿和黑麦草对PFOA的传输能力显著高于PFOS,玉米和大豆体内PFOS和PFOA的传输能力没有明显差别,而且都处于较低的水平。在所有植物的地上部分中都没有检出N-EtFOSAA,表明N-EtFOSAA的传输能力极弱。七种植物的根中都检测出N-EtFOSAA的降解产物N-乙基全氟辛烷磺酰胺(N-EtFOSA)和全氟辛基磺酰胺(FOSA),在所有植物的茎和叶中也都检测到了高浓度的N-EtFOSA,而只有黑麦草的茎中有FOSA的检出,说明所有植物都能够吸收和代谢N-EtFOSAA,而黑麦草的代谢能力最强。以上研究说明植物能够吸收、传输及代谢土壤中的全氟化合物。 2)采用温室水培实验,研究了PFOS和PFOA对玉米的毒性,并通过添加抑制剂的方式,探索了植物吸收PFCs的机理。结果表明:当PFOS和PFOA浓度大于1mg/L时,玉米的生长受到了明显的抑制,而且高浓度下(>50mg/L)玉米的根部比地上部分更敏感;当暴露浓度大于100mg/L后,PFOA的毒性大于PFOS。水通道蛋白抑制剂(Ag+与丙三醇)和阴离子通道抑制剂(4,4'-二异硫氰酸基-2,2'-二苯乙烯磺酸二钠与5-硝基-2-(3-苯丙胺)苯甲酸)能够显著抑制PFOS的吸收,而代谢抑制剂NaN3和Na3VO4对PFOS的吸收没有影响,表明PFOS的玉米吸收是不需要能量的被动运输过程,但是需要水通道蛋白和阴离子通道等载体蛋白的参与;PFOA的吸收受到阴离子通道抑制剂9-蒽甲酸以及代谢抑制剂NaN3和Na3VO4的明显抑制,这说明玉米吸收PFOA是一个需要能量供应的主动运输过程,而且还需要特定的阴离子通道参与。在吸收过程中,PFOS和PFOA之间没有竞争效应,表明两者有着不同的吸收机制。温度可以显著地抑制玉米对PFOS和PFOA的吸收,而pH的变化(pH 5-8)对吸收过程没有明显的影响。本研究首次探讨了植物对PFOS和PFOA这两种阴离子型有机污染物的吸收机理。
英文摘要:
      Perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) are new emerging organic pollutants. They have drawn increasing concerns because of their environmental persistence, bioaccumulation, biomagnification and biotoxicity. Application of biosolids to agricultural fields would cause serious PFCs pollution in surface soil and groundwater. Plant uptake and translocation of pollutants from soils is an important process which could introduce pollutants into food chain. Studies on this process for PFCs would shed light on the environmental behavior of PFCs, provide information for assessing the environmental and health risks of biosolids application, and help to get PFC-free crop products by means of blocking and genetic engineering technologies. However, information of the transport and transformation behavior of PFCs in the soil-plant system is quite limited so far. Accordingly, in this study, plant transport, translocation and metabolism of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and N-ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamido acetic acid (N-EtFOSAA) were studied. Following results were obtained. 1) Uptake, translocation and metabolism of PFOS, PFOA and N-EtFOSAA by seven types of plants, maize (Zea mays L.), soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill), radish (Raphnus sativus L.), green bean (glycine max Merr.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), alfalfa(Medicago sativa L.) and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.), from biosolid-amended soils were investigated. The PFCs tested had been found in the roots of all plants, with the maximum root concentration factors (RCFs) of 4.99, 10.18 and 1.37 for PFOS, PFOA and N-EtFOSAA, respectively, showing that PFCs could be transported from soil to plant. The RCF values of PFOA were higher than those of PFOS for green bean, lettuce, alfalfa and ryegrass, while the RCF values of PFOA were lower than those of PFOS for maize and soybean. No significant difference was found for RCF values between PFOS and PFOA for radish. Lettuce had the biggest RCF value for N-EtFOSAA (1.4), whereas green bean had the smallest RCF value for N-EtFOSAA (0.52). The RCF values of N-EtFOSAA were in the range from 0.6 to 1.0 for other five plants. PFOS and PFOA had been found in the stems and leaves of all plants tested, suggesting that PFOS and PFOA could be translocated. The translocation factors (TF) of PFOA were higher than PFOS for radish, green bean, lettuce, alfalfa and ryegrass. There is no difference between the TF values for maize and soybean. No N-EtFOSAA was found in stems and leaves of all plants, showing its weak translocation ability. The N-EtFOSAA degradation products, N-ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamide (N-EtFOSA) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA), had been found in all plant roots. N-EtFOSA was also found in all plant stems and leaves. But FOSA was only detected in the stem of ryegrass, which suggested that N-EtFOSAA could be degraded by plants studied, and the degradation ability of ryegrass was superior to the others. This work provided an evidence for plant uptake, translocation and degradation of PFCs from biosolid-amended soils. 2) A series of experiments were conducted in a hydroponic system to study the uptake and toxicity of PFOS and PFOA to maize (Zea mays L.). When PFOS or PFOA concentrations were higher than 1mg/L, maize dry weights of roots and shoots were inhibited significantly. When PFOS and PFOA concentrations were higher than 100mg/L, PFOA are more toxic than PFOS. Moreover, the ratio of shoot/root increased with PFOS and PFOS concentration increasing, suggesting the roots are more sensitive than shoots. Uptake of PFOS was notably inhibited by aquaporin inhibitors (Ag+ and glycerol) and anion channel blockers (4,4'- diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid, DIDS; 5-Nitro-2- (3-phenylpropylamino) benzoic Acid, NPPB), indicating that aquaporin and anion channels were necessary in PFOS absorption by maize root. However, PFOS uptake into maize was insensitive to metabolic inhibitors (NaN3 and Na3VO4), suggesting that the transport of PFOS from solution to maize roots was an energy-independent process. In contrast, the uptake of PFOA was reduced by metabolic inhibitors, revealing its energy-dependent uptake nature. No absorption competition was found between PFOS and PFOA, which implied that the uptake of PFOS and PFOA followed different pathways. The concentrations of PFOS and PFOA in roots were decreased with temperature decreasing. No significant difference of uptake was found when the solution pH ranged from 5 to 8. To our knowledge, this is the first study on the absorption mechanism of PFOS and PFOA by plants.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/35130
Appears in Collections:环境化学与生态毒理学国家重点实验室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
刘雨. 全氟化合物的植物吸收、传输与代谢研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2012.
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