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题名: 人类与自然干扰下大熊猫空间利用与活动模式研究
作者: 张晋东
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2012
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 欧阳志云
关键词: 大熊猫(Ailuropoda melanoleuca) ; Giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) ; GPS项圈跟踪 ; GPS collar tracking ; 活动模式 ; activity pattern ; 生境利用 ; habitat use ; 地震干扰 ; earthquake disturbance ; 放牧干扰 ; livestock disturbance
其他题名: Activity Patterns and Space Use of the Giant Panda in Relationship to Human and Natural Disturbance
中文摘要:       大熊猫(Ailuropoda melanoleuca)是我国特有且濒危的珍稀物种,是全球野生动物保护的旗舰物种。为了更深入地了解大熊猫在与人类和自然生态系统的关系,本研究在四川卧龙自然保护区,利用3S技术,红外相机监测和野外调查数据,研究人类和自然干扰下大熊猫的空间利用与活动模式,以期为大熊猫的保护管理提供科学依据。研究所取得的主要研究成果如下: (1)在卧龙自然保护区,满足一只大熊猫的生存空间的家域面积为1.29~2.53km2,考虑到在不同位置核域内的迁移路径,大熊猫的家域面积为2.07~4.80km2。几只大熊猫共同生活在一个相对较大的空间内,而每只大熊猫有其相对独立的生存空间。成年大熊猫家域内利用斑块呈集中分布格局,雌雄个体家域面积相差不大,而亚成体的利用斑块分散分布,家域面积明显高于成体。大熊猫家域内的平均坡度范围在25°~ 29°之间,但是坡度频数的分布多呈负偏态分布。 (2)大熊猫的平均活动率在0.49 ~ 0.62之间,春季是大熊猫活动水平和活动率的高峰期,夏秋季大熊猫的活动水平和活动率明显降低,冬季大熊猫活动水平再次升高;大熊猫具有相对稳定的昼夜活动节律,受光周期的影响,具有晨昏活动习性,大熊猫普遍存在3个活动高峰和低谷。大熊猫的年龄、个体大小和生理状态都明显地影响着大熊猫的活动水平。不同生理期(如受孕期/未受孕)的大熊猫在不同家域水平尺度和时间尺度上活动水平分布特征不同。 (3)汶川地震引发的次生灾害对生物多样性存在明显的影响,地震灾害体上的木本植物生物多样性指数显著地降低;另一方面,在土壤比例高,坡度小的地震灾害体上,更新植被恢复速度较快。逐步回归分析结果表明灾害体内土壤比例、坡度和周边乔木层郁闭度是影响植被恢复的主要因子。大熊猫家域内,发生地震灾害面积和所占比例都很小。地震后大熊猫及其他野生动物更多选择距地震灾害体400之外区域活动。不同种类的动物对灾害体的适应机制不同,有蹄类动物,更偏爱选择在有更新植被的地震灾害体内取食。 (4)马主要分布在大熊猫适宜生境内,马群的主要活动区域与大熊猫适宜生境高度重合。马群对大熊猫主食竹—冷箭竹采食强度较大。大熊猫与马保持距离在1000m以上,对引入马群的行为响应机制为躲避,引入马群后,大熊猫放弃原有生境,转移到其他区域生活。 (5)通过红外相机监测到野生动物20种。马群活动区域的红外相机野生动物的拍摄率明显低于其他附近区域,表明野生动物有躲避马群的行为,通过大熊猫照片和录像估计核桃坪—三岔沟区域分布有11~16只野生大熊猫。
英文摘要:       The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is an endangered species and national treasure in China, as well as a flagship for wildlife conservation across the world. While studies on wildlife species often involve direct behavioral observation, such methods have largely been unsuccessful with giant pandas because they are elusive animals that avoid humans and they also inhabit forests with low visibility due to the dense understory of bamboo. As a result, much remains unknown about the behavior of wild giant pandas. To reveal new insights into how this endangered species interacts with its environment, we captured 5 wild pandas(one adult male, three adult females, and one sub-adult female)and fit them with GPS collars beginning in March 2010 in Wolong Nature Reserve, Sichuan. We combined GPS collar tracking data with data obtained from field surveys and infrared cameras to study giant panda habitat selection, space use, and activity patterns in relationship to human and natural disturbances. We hope that the results of this study will provide recommendations for giant panda conservation and management initiatives such as the designation of protected areas and the implementation of a reintroduction program. The main results are as follows: (1) Home ranges of the monitored giant pandas were 1.29-2.53 km2, but the home range size increased to 2.07-4.80 km2 when considering the movement path of the animals. Giant pandas had separate core areas from one another, but home ranges overlapped. The home range size of the male and females was not significantly different, but the sub-adult had a larger home range than the adults. Adults had one or several concentrated habitat patches in their home range but the sub-adult did not. Average slope within the home range was 25°to 29°, but the frequency distribution was negatively skewed, with a larger proportion of slopes distributed from 30° to 45°. Average slope increased positively with home range level for adults but decreased for the sub-adult. (2) The average activity rate of giant pandas was 0.49 to 0.62. The activity rate and activity level were highest in spring (from April to June), lowest in summer-autumn (from July to October), and intermediate in winter (from November to March). Circadian activity patterns of giant pandas were inherent and steady, and there was no significant correlation between circadian activity rhythm and season or climate, including air temperature. The effect of solar radiation was significantly negatively and linearly related to the daily activity level of the studied giant pandas. There were three activity peaks at 7:00-12:00, 17:00-19:00 and 23:00-1:00, and marked rest periods at 0:00-7:00, 14:00-16:00 and 21:00-23:00. The age, body size and physiological properties of giant pandas affected their activity levels. Activity level of old and sub-adult pandas was lower than young and middle-aged pandas. Activity level of animals with larger body size was higher than small-bodied. Activity level of a female experiencing pregnancy rose significantly and average activity level was higher in the birthing year. The effect of elevation was significantly negatively and linearly related to the activity level of the study pandas, and the effect of slope was significantly positively and linearly related to the activity level of the study pandas. Life history and physiological factors strongly affected temporal and spatial patterns of giant panda activity levels. (3) There was a significant loss of tree and shrub species richness and diversity in areas in Wolong damaged by the Wenchuan earthquake. On the other hand, vegetation recovery was rapid for those earthquake damaged areas which had high proportions of soil cover and gentle slopes. By November 2011, recovered vegetation in the earthquake areas included 115 herb species, 83 shrub species, and 25 tree species. The canopy cover of recovered vegetation was 63% and average height of recovered vegetation was 82 cm. Stepwise regression showed that factors affecting vegetation recovery mainly included soil cover, slope and canopy cover of surrounding trees near the earthquake damaged sites. (4) Our study demonstrates that the Wenchuan earthquake did not have a serious effect on habitat use of giant pandas in Wolong. There was very slight earthquake damage in the home ranges of the monitored giant pandas. There was no earthquake damage in the home ranges of four of the giant pandas and 0.037 km2 (0.82%) of earthquake damage at the 50% level home range in the fifth giant panda. For giant pandas and other wildlife across our broader sampling area, there appeared to be avoidance of small earthquake damaged sites only at short-range distances (400 m). Some ungulates demonstrated preference for earthquake damaged areas with recovering vegetation because they preferred to forage on pioneer species in early successional habitats. We discovered that horses were distributed in suitable giant panda habitat. There was a high overlap between the horses’ activity region and suitable giant panda habitat with respect to physical factors (including elevation, slope, distance to river), biological factors (such as forest cover ) and human disturbance (distance to main road). Horses consumed large amounts of bamboo (the giant pandas main food source), while individual pandas appeared to avoid areas intensively used by horses. (5) A total 20 wildlife species were photographed by 20 infrared cameras from June 12 2011 to April 27 2012. According to the relative abundance index (RAI), the most dominant 3 species were sambar (Cervus unicolor), giant panda, and red panda (Ailurus fulgens); their total percentage reached 69.86%. Two species of domesticated animals were also photographed, including domestic dog and horse. We found there was low photographic frequency in the area where livestock were located, suggesting that wildlife appeared to avoid areas used by horses. According to photo and video data on giant pandas, we concluded that there were about 11-16 giant panda individuals in the research area.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/35131
Appears in Collections:城市与区域生态国家重点实验室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
张晋东. 人类与自然干扰下大熊猫空间利用与活动模式研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2012.
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