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题名: 水族馆海水循环养殖系统中消毒副产物研究
作者: 姜妍君
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 2012
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 强志民
关键词: 水族馆海水 ; Aquarium seawater ; 自由氯 ; Free Chlorine ; 自由溴 ; 同步检测方法 ; 消毒副产物
其他题名: Investigation of disinfection byproducts in recirculating marine aquarium system
中文摘要:       封闭循环式水处理系统在海水水族馆中应用日益广泛,选用合适的消毒工艺对于有效杀灭病原菌、保护动物的健康具有十分重要的意义。臭氧是目前海水水族馆最常采用的消毒剂,臭氧处理海水时,海水中高浓度的Cl-和Br-能被臭氧氧化生成自由氯(FC)和自由溴(FB)。FC和FB不仅本身对动物的健康造成损害,而且还能与其它无机或有机物反应生成有害消毒副产物(如:三卤甲烷和卤乙酸等)。所以,对水族馆海水循环养殖系统中的FC、FB及消毒副产物的生成过程探讨和浓度调查至关重要,目前关于此方面的研究鲜有报道。因此,本文以开发水族馆海水同步检测FC和FB的分析方法及全面考察水族馆海水消毒副产物为研究目标,开展了以下工作:建立了将FC和FB衍生为4-卤-2,6-二甲基苯酚的同步测定水族馆海水中FC和FB浓度的气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)分析测定方法。测定了该方法的标准曲线线性、检出限、方法的回收率和准确性,并运用该方法对北京水族馆海水水样中的FC和FB浓度进行了测定,结果表明,经臭氧处理的海水中FC和FB的浓度范围分别为29.88-45.38 μg/L和24.99-514.2 μg/L,水族馆动物的健康正受到严重威胁。测定了臭氧处理海水过程中FC和FB的生成以及衰减情况。在海水臭氧化过程中,Br-被氧化生成FB占主导,Cl-被氧化成为FC的程度较低;FB的衰减速度远高于FC。对北京水族馆八个代表性池体的FC、FB、三卤甲烷(THMs)、卤乙酸(HAAs)、亚氯酸根(ClO2-)、氯酸根(ClO3-)和溴酸根(BrO3-)进行了检测和评估。该水族馆各池体的FC和FB浓度分别为30.09-56.37 μg/L和26.48-730.7 μg/L,臭氧消毒产生的较高浓度的FC和FB是目前水族馆海水臭氧消毒存在的主要问题。水族馆海水消毒过程产生的THMs和HAAs仍在安全浓度范围内,最主要的THMs和HAAs分别为溴代THMs和溴代HAAs。水族馆各池体的BrO3-浓度均大于USEPA对饮用水中规定的BrO3-浓度限值10 μg/L,臭氧投加量较高的池体的BrO3-浓度超出饮用水中规定的BrO3-浓度限值1个数量级。此外,兼用二氧化氯消毒的哺乳动物池体中,氯酸根浓度超出我国规定的饮用水中的浓度限值(0.7 mg/L)两个数量级,水族馆动物的健康正受到严重威胁。ClO2并不适合作为消毒剂在水族馆中使用。各种DBPs的浓度受臭氧接触时间、与有机物反应以及生物降解等多种因素影响,DBPs在循环系统臭氧接触罐出口处的浓度与池体中的浓度大小相比并没有固定规律。本文开发的同步检测水族馆海水中FC和FB浓度的分析方法有助于解析海水臭氧消毒过程中,FC和FB的生成与衰减情况。全面调查水族馆海水消毒副产物的浓度,为选择合适的消毒方法减少有害消毒副产物的生成提供了理论依据。
英文摘要:       Closed recirculating water treatment system has been extensively used in marine aquarium. Appropriate disinfection is of essential importance to inactivate pathogens and protect the health of aquarium animals. Currently, ozone is the most commonly-used disinfectant in marine aquarium. During seawater ozonation process, high concentrations of chloride and bromide ions could be oxidized to free chlorine (FC) and free bromine (FB) by ozone. FC and FB not only are harmful to the health of aquarium animals, but also react with other inorganic or organic materials to produce harmful byproducts (e.g., trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs)). Thus, it is highly important to investigate the concentrations and formation of FC, FB and disinfection byproducts in aquarium system, about which, however, little is known up to date. The aim of this study was to develop a simultaneous detection method to determine the concentration levels of FC and FB in aquarium seawater, and then conduct a full survey of the disinfection byproducts.A highly selective and sensitive analytical method based on the derivatization of FC and FB to the corresponding 4-halo-2,6-dimethylphenols and subsequently quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed. The developed method was successfully applied to the seawater of Beijing Aquarium. The results show that in the ozonated aquaria seawater, the concentrations of FC and FB were in the range of 29.88-45.38 μg/L and 24.99-514.2 μg/L, respectively, revealing that the health of aquaria animals was under a severe threat. The developed method was also applied to monitor the formation and decay of FC and FB in ozonated seawater. During the ozonation process, the formation of FB dominated, while much less chloride ions were oxidized to FC; FB decayed much faster than FC.Thereafter, the concentrations of FC, FB, THMs, HAAs, chlorite, chlorate and bromate ions in eight representative tanks of Beijing Aquarium were detected and evaluated. The concentrations of FC and FB were in the range of 30.09-56.37 and 26.48–730.7 μg/L, respectively, revealing that the considerable formation of FC and FB is a major problem of aquarium seawater ozonation. THMs and HAAs were in the safe concentration range currently, and brominated THMs and brominated HAAs are the dominating THMs and HAAs, respectively. The concentrations of bromate ions were above the USEPA-regulated maximum concentration of 10 μg/L for drinking water in all tanks, especially, bromate in tanks with higher ozone dose exceeds the regulated maximum concentration by one order of magnitude. In mammal tanks which also use chlorine dioxide as disinfectant, the concentrations of chlorate ion exceed the regulated maximum concentration of 0.7 mg/L for drinking water by two orders of magnitude, revealing the health of aquarium animals was seriously threatened. Chlorine dioxide is not an appropriate disinfectant for aquarium. The concentrations of DBPs were affected by contact time with ozone, reaction with organic matters and biological degradation, and there is no general rule about the concentrations of DBPs in the outlets of ozone contactors in comparison with those in the tanks of the recirculating systems.The development of simultaneous detection methods for FC and FB in aquarium seawater helps to analyze the formation and decay of FC and FB during seawater ozonation process. The full survey of aquarium seawater disinfection byproducts provides the theoretical basis for selecting appropriate disinfection methods and reducing the formation of harmful disinfection byproducts.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/35160
Appears in Collections:环境水质学国家重点实验室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
姜妍君. 水族馆海水循环养殖系统中消毒副产物研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2012.
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