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题名: 我国村镇污水特征分析、治理需求评价与典型治理实践研究
作者: 侯京卫
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 2012
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 范彬
关键词: 村镇污水 ; rural and towns’ wastewater ; 用水特征 ; characteristic of water consumption ; 排水特征 ; characteristics of wastewater ; 治理需求评价 ; evaluation of the management demands ; 典型实践 ; typical practices
其他题名: The Analysis of The Characteristics of Rural and Towns’ Wastewater , Evaluation of The Demands of Management and Study of Typical Practices
中文摘要:       水环境污染和水资源短缺已经成为我国可持续发展面临的最严峻挑战之一。在城镇污水和工业废水治理水平得到显著提升之后,广大农村和小城镇水污染问题日益突出。目前,我国村镇污水治理存在基础数据匮乏、村镇污水治理需求不清、治理路线存疑等问题,阻碍了村镇污水治理的顺利开展。针对上述问题,本研究开展了全国范围的村镇污水调查,研究了我国村镇用水排水特征;提出了村镇污水治理需求综合评价方法。以江苏省为案例,对江苏省各市村镇污水治理需求紧迫性进行了评价,并根据评价结果提出了村镇污水治理目标。选择当前我国村镇污水治理的两种典型实践进行了调查和分析,探讨了村镇污水治理开展过程中存在的突出问题。研究取得以下主要成果: 我国村庄居民用水量为64.8L/人·天,镇区居民用水量为77.5L/人·天;农村污水产生量为47.4L/人·天,镇区污水产生量为58.3L/人·天。村镇居民用排水环节主要集中在洗浴和洗衣两个环节;用排水时段主要集中在早间和晚间。不同地区村镇生活用水排水量存在较大差异,在地理位置上呈现出从南到北、从东到西依次递减的规律。地理位置、家庭人口、住房类型、人均住房面积、洗衣方式、洗浴方式、厕所类型是村镇居民生活用水量的重要影响因素。测算结果表明,2008年我国村镇污水产生总量为175.4亿吨,污水中的COD、总氮、总磷每年产生量分别为781.52万吨、186.46万吨和14.43万吨。 模糊综合评价法比较适用于村镇污水治理需求紧迫性评价。对江苏省各市村镇污水治理需求紧迫性评价的结果表明:苏州市、无锡市、常州市村镇污水治理需求强烈;泰州市、南通市、南京市、扬州市村镇污水治理需求较强;徐州市、连云港市、镇江市村镇污水治理需求一般;淮安市、宿迁市、盐城市村镇污水治理需求较弱。 对村镇污水治理开展较好的常熟市农村污水治理现状进行了调查,总结了常熟市农村污水治理的经验和存在的问题,其中一个突出问题是“重建设、轻管理”,导致农村污水处理设施因缺乏有效的运行维护而未能正常运行。对于我国一直大力推广的沼气池的调查结果表明,农村沼气使用效果不太理想、农村沼气对污水治理的作用并不明显。
英文摘要:       Water pollution and water shortages are great challenges for sustainable development of China. While the management of urban sewage and industrial wastewater has been enhanced significantly, the water pollution of villages and small towns receives more and more concern. Meanwhile, we are facing the problems of lack of basic data of rural and towns’wastewater discharge, unclarity of the management demands and uncertainty of the management routes. All these problems hinder the management of rural and towns’ wastewater. So a nationwide investigation of rural and towns’wastewater is carried out for these problems. The characteristics of rural and towns’ wastewater are studied by statistical analysis of the survey data. The method of comprehensive evaluation is proposed. Then, taking Jiangsu province as an example, the urgency of management demands for rural and towns’ wastewater are evaluated. On the base of evaluation results, the goals of the management of rural and towns’ wastewater are proposed. Through investigation and analysis of two typical practices, some other problems in carrying out the management of rural and small towns’ wastewater are discussed. The main achievements are: The water consumption of rural residents is 64.8L/c·d, the water consumption of small towns’ residents is 77.5L/c·d. The water consumption and wastewater output of villages and towns mainly occur in in bathing and laundry. From the perspective of time, the water consumption and wastewater output of villages and towns mainly occur in morning and evening. The water consumption and the wastewater output of villages and towns are different for different areas, presenting a descending order from South to North, from East to West. The effects of geographic location, household size, housing area, house types, laundry method, bathing method and toilet types on the water consumption of villages and towns are all significant. According to the investigation results, the quantity of rural wastewater output is 47.4L/c·d, and the quantity of towns’ wastewater outputs is 58.3L/c·d. The amount of rural and towns’ wastewater output of China is about 17.54 billon tons in 2008, and the output of COD, TN, TP in villages and towns’ wastewater are approximately 7.8152, 1.8646, 0.1443 million tons every year. The urgency of management demandswastewaterof Jiangsu province is evaluated in prefecture level with fuzzy comprehensive evaluation, which is appropriate for the evaluation of the urgency of management demands for rural and towns’wastewater. The evaluation results show that the urgency of management demands for rural and towns’wastewater are strong in Suzhou, Wuxi and Changhzou; The urgency of management demands for rural and towns’wastewater are relatively strong in Taizhou, Nantong, Nanjing and Yangzhou. The urgency of management demands for rural and towns’wastewater are ordinary in Xuzhou, Lianyungang and Zhenjiang. The urgency of management demands for rural and towns’wastewater are relatively weak in Huaian, Suqian and Yancheng. for rural and towns’ Two typical practices of rural and towns’ wastewater management are investigated and analyzed. The investigations of the management status of rural wastewater in Changshu shows that there are some valuable experiences in the practices in Changshu, but there are also some problems in the practices. One of the most serious problems is that the wastewater treatment facilities lack effective operation and maintenance. According to the investigation results of rural biogas, which is promoted widely in recent years in China, the usage of rural biogas are unsatisfactory and the effectiveness of rural biogas on the management of rural wastewater is not obvious.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/35162
Appears in Collections:水污染控制技术研究室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
侯京卫. 我国村镇污水特征分析、治理需求评价与典型治理实践研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2012.
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