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题名: 我国环境基准向环境标准转化的机制探讨
作者: 毕岑岑
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 1990
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 王铁宇
关键词: 环境基准 ; environmental criteria ; 环境标准 ; environmental standards ; 转化机制 ; transformation mechanism ; 影响因子 ; affecting factors ; 政策保障 ; policy guarantee ; 水质基准 ; water quality criteria ; 水质标准 ; water quality standard
其他题名: Transformation Mechanism from Environmental Criteria to Environmental Standards in China
中文摘要:       本论文对发达国家环境基准向环境标准转化的一般模式进行了探讨,对比我国环境基准研究和环境标准现状,总结出我国环境标准存在的问题,并针对这些问题提出了我国环境基准向环境标准转化的机制框架。在此基础上,对水环境基准和标准开展进一步深入研究,对我国现行水环境质量标准进行了分析,与发达国家进行对比,总结出我国现行水环境质量标准存在的问题,并对我国水质基准向水质标准转化的条件进行了分析,据此提出我国水质基准向水质标准转化机制框架。论文的主要结论有: (1)与发达国家相比,中国环境基准研究起步较晚,虽然已取得了一定的研究成果,但已有成果研究方法和区域不一,缺乏系统性,难以应用于环境标准的完善和修订; (2)经过几十年发展,中国已初步建立了较完整的环境标准体系,但由于自主环境基准研究的缺失,我国环境标准在科学性和可行性上还需要进一步完善和提高,且不同介质环境标准体系的完整程度也有所差异,在水、土、气三大介质环境标准中,水环境标准体系相对完善,土壤环境标准仍存在较多问题; (3)中国环境基准向环境标准转化面临三点问题: 1)环境基准研究刚刚起步,缺乏系统性,研究机构授权不明, 2)环境基准尚未有效纳入环境标准体系及环境管理工作, 3)公众参与渠道少,程度低; (4)构建了中国环境基准向环境标准转化的机制框架,该框架整体上由机构职责模块、转化路径模块和政策保障模块三大功能模块构成,机构职责模块包含国家环境保护主管部门和地方政府环境保护部门两个层次,转化路径模块由转化的一般步骤和依据环境基准制定环境标准值过程中的影响因子体系及其作用机理构成,政策保障模块为转化机制框架的运行提供了七点政策保障建议; (5)通过将我国现行水环境质量标准与美国、日本为代表的发达国家进行比较,发现我国水质标准存在三点问题: 1)以保护水资源用途为目标,水质基准与标准衔接困难, 2)五类水体系存在科学合理性问题, 3)国家统一制定水质标准,难以适应环境的多样性; (6)对中国水质基准向水质标准转化条件进行分析,结果显示我国在经济发展水平和科技支撑力水平上地域不平衡性较严重,且在现有政策下,地方政府制定地方环境标准意愿不强,由此推断,短期内改变我国现行的国家统一的水质标准体系不可行; (7)构建了中国水质基准向水质标准转化机制框架,该框架着眼水质基准研究与水环境质量标准的修订,从国家环境保护主管部门,省、自治区和直辖市人民政府环境保护部门的角度给出了各阶段的预期状态及水质基准、水质标准、环境管理部门之间的相互作用关系。从时间序列上讲,将水质基准向水质标准的转化分为两步走,通过过渡时期的调整,逐步完成我国现行水质标准体系的改善,并将中国环境基准向环境标准转化机制框架作为模块引入水质基准向水质标准转化机制框架。
英文摘要:       The general transformation mechanisms from environmental criteria (EC) to environmental standards (ESs) in developed countries were discussed. Problems with current ESs in China were drawn through comparison between Chinese EC and ESs with those in developed countries, based on which a framework of transformation mechanism from EC to ESs in China was established. In addition, further researches were done about water quality criteria (WQC) and water quality standard (WQS) in China. Analysis on present WQS in China showed several problems with Chinese WQS, compared with those in developed countries such as US State and Japan. At the same time, conditions for transformation from WQC to WQS in China were estimated, and a framework for transformation from WQC to WQS in China was developed. Main conclusions of the paper were as followed: (1) Compared with developed countries, China’s researches on EC started later. Although some results have been obtained, the existing researches used different methods and were carried out in different regions, which led to the fact that results from these researches were not able to be used in ESs; (2) With decades of development, a relatively complete ES system has been built in China; yet, improvements were needed with scientificity and feasibility of ESs. Besides, of the three media of water, soil and air, the WQS system was more complete while many problems existed in soil environmental standards; (3) Three problems were faced with transformation from EC to ESs in China: 1) systematic was lack in EC researches and there were no authorized institutions of EC researches in China, 2) EC have not been included in environmental management system effectively, 3) few channels were provided for public participation in environmental management; (4) A framework for transformation from EC to ESs was established. The framework was composed by three parts: 1) relevant national and local agencies and responsibilities; 2) steps for transformation including affecting factors and their interactions; 3) policies for solving current problems in China; (5) Through comparison between Chinese WQS and those in the US and Japan, three problems with current WQS in China were drawn: 1) the goal of WQS was to protect uses of water resources rather than human health, which made it hard to transform WQC to WQS, 2) scientific rationality problems existed in the “five categories of waters” system, 3) the national unified WQS didn’t adapt to the diversity of natural environment and social-economic development in China; (6) Analysis on conditions for transformation from WQC to WQS in China showed that serious imbalance of both economic development and scientific supporting capability existed, and governments’ will to develop local ESs were not strong under current policy environment. Therefore, it might be not feasible to change the current national unified WQS system right now; (7) A framework for transformation from WQC to WQS in China was established. The framework included four items: the state environmental protection department, local environmental protection department, WQS and EC researches. In terms of the time series, adjustment of present WQS system was divided into two steps and relationship among the four items in each step was given. In addition, the general framework for transformation from EC to ESs was included in the later framework as a module.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/35164
Appears in Collections:城市与区域生态国家重点实验室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
毕岑岑. 我国环境基准向环境标准转化的机制探讨[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 1990.
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