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题名: 饮用水嗅味评价与致嗅物质识别研究
作者: 孙道林
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2012
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 杨敏
关键词: 饮用水 ; drinking water ; 嗅味 ; taste and odor ; 嗅味物质识别 ; identification of odor compound ; 感官气相色谱 ; sensory GC ; 全二维气相色谱/飞行时间质谱 ; GC-GC/TOFMS
其他题名: Taste and odor evaluation and identification of odor-causing compounds in drinking water
中文摘要:       近年来我国饮用水嗅味问题发生频繁,嗅味已成为影响饮用水水质的重要指标之一。明确嗅味类型、识别出相应的嗅味物质,对于预防和控制嗅味问题具有重要意义。研究中利用多种分析技术手段,调查评价了我国主要城市饮用水中嗅味问题的发生、嗅味类型以及主要致嗅物质的分布情况,针对嗅味问题复杂的河流型水源,进一步从致嗅物质识别、嗅味特征及不同致嗅物质贡献评价等方面进行了系统研究,主要进展如下: 1)初步调查明确了我国主要城市饮用水中的嗅味特征与分布情况。调查涉及我国34个主要城市的111个供水厂,结果表明饮用水中的嗅味问题普遍存在,80%的原水、45%的出厂水具有不同程度的嗅味问题,主要嗅味类型以土霉味、沼泽/腥臭味为主,其在原水中的发生率分别达到41%、36%;从特征嗅味物质来看,调查涉及到的2种土霉味类物质、10种腥臭味物质中,二甲基异莰醇是导致地表水源中土霉味的主要物质,在原水中的检出率达到75%,且河流及湖库水源中均普遍存在;河流水源中的嗅味问题要更为复杂,二甲基二硫醚及二丁基硫醚等硫醇硫醚类物质有一定程度的检出。 2)对嗅味问题明显的某典型河流水源,探明了其土霉味问题发生的来源及规律。土霉味在该水源中的发生具有季节性,夏秋季强度较高,主要由二甲基异莰醇导致;鉴定结果表明席藻是代谢产生二甲基异莰醇的主要来源微生物(80-95%优势藻);通过进一步的流域调查,近取水口的支流是该水源中席藻生长及代谢产生二甲基异莰醇的主要来源。 3)通过感官气相色谱与全二维气相色谱/飞行时间质谱分析的结合,进一步发展了水中嗅味物质的识别分析技术。通过感官气相色谱分析实现样品中异味特征峰的评价及定位,进一步利用全二维气相色谱/飞行时间质谱对不同异味峰中的相应化合物进行识别;针对识别得到的化合物,通过相对嗅味活性指数及嗅味感官特征评价的方法,确定不同物质对于水中嗅味的贡献,鉴定得到主要的嗅味物质。 4)初步鉴定得到了某典型河流水源中的主要致沼泽/腥臭味物质。利用所建立的相应嗅味感官评价及嗅味物质识别技术,对常年存在沼泽/腥臭味问题的某典型河流水源,识别得到了主要的嗅味物质,包括硫醚类、吲哚以及吡啶类和噻唑类等物质,对其嗅味特征均有一定的贡献。
英文摘要:       Recently the occurrence of taste and odor has become more and more frequent in drinking water of China, which is a major issue for water quality. Thus, it is very meaningful to determine the characteristics of taste and odor and identify the causing compounds for preventing and controlling such taste and odor events. In this study, applying several technic, we have done a widely survey about the occurrence of taste and odor in dirinking water treatment plants, and meawhile the odor and main causative compounds in a river source water were confirmed through a yearly investigation. The main results were summarized as follows: 1) In the 111 drinking water treatment plants, eighty percent of source water samples exihibited odor problems characterized with the earthy/musty(41%) and swampy/septic (36%) odors, while the occurrence rate became lower (45%) in the finished water. Source water form rivers exhibited more pollution–origin odors such as swampy/septic odor, while that from lakes and reservoirs exhibited more algae-origin odors such as the earthy/musty odor. The occurrence rates of 2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB) in the surface source water samples were 75%, and the earthy/musty odor in the surface water samples were maily caused by 2-MIB. 2) There are regular problems of musty and septic odors in the river. 2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB) was responsible for the musty odor in summer from July to September. Microscopic observation confirmed with the cloning results showed that Phormidium spp., which accounted for 80-95% of the algal cell density, was the microorganisms responsible for the production of 2-MIB . Results from a wide-area sampling campaign in the Huangpu River watershed showed that, other than the large tributaries receiving water from Tai Lake, several small creeks close to the intake may have contributed most of the 2-MIB and the Phormidium spp. to the Huangpu River source water. 3)Combied GC/GC TOFMS with sensory GC,a new method was developed to identify the septic odor in a river source water, and the contributions of different compounds were also evaluated by the method of relative odor activitive value. 4) Most odor peaks were detected in the analysis of samples collecting in different time, which indicated that odorous existed constantly in the source water. all the odor peaks were identified and many comounds such as sulphides, indole, aldehydes, pyridines and thizole contribute the septic odor.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/35170
Appears in Collections:环境水质学国家重点实验室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
孙道林. 饮用水嗅味评价与致嗅物质识别研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2012.
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