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题名: 甘薯淀粉废水制备微生物菌剂及其对蔬菜生长的影响
作者: 张茉莉
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 2013
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 杨建州 ; 白志辉
关键词: 甘薯淀粉废水 ; sweet potato wastewater ; 地衣芽孢杆菌 ; Bacillus licheniformis ; 解淀粉芽孢杆菌 ; Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ; 微生物菌剂 ; biofertilizer ; 青梗小白菜 ; green Chinese cabbage
其他题名: Utilization of sweet potato starch wastewater for the promoting effect of vegetables by bio fertilizer
中文摘要:       甘薯淀粉生产过程中会产生大量的高浓度有机废水,淀粉废水的COD含量非常高(10000-35000mg/L)。若采用常规的水处理工艺降解如此高浓度COD含量的淀粉废水,能耗惊人。而从另一个角度看,淀粉废水(SPW)含有高浓度淀粉、糖类和果胶等,营养非常丰富,可资源化利用淀粉废水做发酵培养基。本论文从水草表面分离了两株细菌菌株,通过形态观察、生理生化研究、磷脂脂肪酸鉴定、16S rDNA分子生物学鉴定及系统发育树建立,以及真菌拮抗实验等手段,发现:这两株菌为芽孢杆菌属的生物防治菌,分别为地衣芽孢杆菌(Bacillus licheniformis) ZML-1和解淀粉芽孢杆菌(Bacillus amyloliquefaciens) ZML-2。这两株菌均可利用淀粉废水做培养基大量发酵培养。地衣芽孢杆菌在pH为7.5,温度为36℃,转速为160r/min时达到最大生物量7.2×109CFU/mL。解淀粉芽孢杆菌在pH为6.0,温度为32℃,转速为160r/min时达到最大生物量8.4×109CFU/mL。同时,本论文探讨了地衣芽孢杆菌和解淀粉芽孢杆菌分别对淀粉废水的利用能力。实验结果表明,地衣芽孢杆菌在pH为6.5,温度为36℃,接种量为8%时,经过36 h,可达到对淀粉废水COD降解率56.6%。解淀粉芽孢杆菌则在pH为7.0,温度为40℃,接种量为2%时,经过48 h,可达到对淀粉废水COD降解率63.7%。由于芽孢杆菌属(Bacillus spp.)以生防菌而闻名,可以表现出对许多植物病原菌均有较好的抑制作用。目前,由于化学农药的使用而导致的环境污染,施用微生物肥料则可以较好地得到控制,并对农业产量有相当大的潜能。本论文讨论了利用地衣芽孢杆菌和解淀粉芽孢杆菌作为微生物肥料的可行性,研究其对青梗小白菜生长的影响。发现地衣芽孢杆菌可将青梗小白菜株重最高提升42%,而解淀粉芽孢杆菌则可将青梗小白菜株重最高提升63%。对施用微生物菌剂后的种植土壤进行磷脂脂肪酸分析,发现与清水灌溉的土壤微生物群落结构和细菌真菌的数量有较大变化。这两株分离出来的芽孢杆菌具有利用淀粉废水培养且改善淀粉废水水质的潜力,对生物资源利用和建立环境友好型处理模式提供了新的思路。
      Effluents from the sweet potato starch manufacture possess a high concentration of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) (10000-35000 mg/L). The treatment of such wastewater by conventional activated sludge processes will accompany high energy consumption, resulting in expensive treatment costs. On the other hand, the sweet potato wastewater (SPW) contains a high concentration of organic substances such as soluble starch, pectin, protein, organic acid and fats, such a high concentration of nutrients can be a good culture medium for microorganism cultivation.Two biocontrol bacteria were isolated from the surface of aquatic plants. The morphology, culture characteristics, physiological, phospholipid fatty acid composition and antifungal activities of these two strains were studied. Phylogenetic trees were constructed by comparing the sequences of these two strains with relevant published 16S rDNA sequences. The result showed that the isolate, ZML-1, is a strain of Bacillus licheniformis, the strain, ZML-2, is a strain of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Both of them can grow well using sweet potato wastewater as the culture medium. The maximum yield (7.2×109CFU/mL) of ZML-1 was achieved in 22 h at 36℃, pH 7.5, and 160 r/min by using SPW. The maximum yield (8.4×109CFU/mL) of ZML-2 was achieved in 22 h at 32℃, pH 6.0, 160r/min by using SPW.The utilization of sweet potato wastewater by Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens was examined in this study. The results showed that the highest COD removal efficiency by ZML-1 could be 57.6% in 36 h at 36℃, pH 6.5, bacterial load 8%. The highest COD removal efficiency by ZML-2 could be 63.7% in 48 h at 40℃, pH 7.0 with bacterial load 2%.Bacillus spp. was originally presented as a biocontrol agent, which can exhibit a good control of lots of plant pathogens. Increasing concern for health and environmental hazards related with using agrochemicals, especially chemical pesticides, has result in a need for sustainability in agriculture. This study discussed the improvement of the quality of green Chinese cabbage by using Bacillus biofertilizer. The result showed that ZML-1 could increase the plant weight with 42%, and the ZML-2 could increase the plant weight with 63%. The effect of Bacillus spp. on soil microbial community structure and diversity were analyzed by PLFAs. The results showed that the Bacillus spp. affected the microbial community structure and quantity of bacteria and fungi.These two isolates Bacillus spp. are feasible to improve the SPW quality, and to develop a hybrid biotechnological process, intergrating the production of environmental friendly biocontrol agent with treatment of intractable SPW.
内容类型: 学位论文
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Recommended Citation:
张茉莉. 甘薯淀粉废水制备微生物菌剂及其对蔬菜生长的影响[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2013.
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