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题名: 我国全氟辛烷磺酸(PFOS)排放源识别与排放估算研究
作者: 谢双蔚
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 2013
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 吕永龙
关键词: 全氟辛烷磺酸(PFOS) ; perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) ; 排放估算 ; emission estimation ; 工业源 ; industrial source ; 生活源 ; domestic source ; 空间分布格局 ; spatial distribution pattern
其他题名: Source identification and emission estimation of perfluorooctane sulfonate in China
中文摘要:       全氟辛烷磺酸(PFOS)作为一类新型持久性有机污染物,已引起各国政府、工业界及学术界的广泛关注。虽然发达国家已陆续采取相关政策措施以削减或限制PFOS类物质的生产和使用,但由于缺乏有效的替代品,PFOS类物质仍然在我国生产并大量使用。这导致我国普遍存在PFOS污染,可能危害我国生态环境和人体健康。然而,目前我国关于PFOS的研究尚处于起步阶段,特别是对其污染来源及排放的探讨很少,缺乏区域尺度的系统研究,无法全面了解我国PFOS排放状况,从而难以满足PFOS污染控制与管理的需要。 针对上述问题,本文首先通过文献调研和专家访谈等方式,调查了解我国PFOS类物质的生产与使用情况,进而识别出潜在的PFOS排放源。调查表明,2001-2011年我国累计生产PFOS类物质近1800 t,现有十几家生产企业,主要集中分布在湖北和福建省,年产量约为220-240 t;PFOS类物质在我国应用极为广泛,根据行业规模和PFOS消耗情况初步推断,织物处理、金属电镀、泡沫灭火和半导体行业是我国最重要的PFOS应用行业,其产业分布特征各不相同。PFOS排放来源于PFOS类产品的整个生命周期过程,包括所有生产和应用PFOS类物质的工业过程及含PFOS消费品的使用和处置。根据生命周期的不同阶段及PFOS类物质应用范围的不同,将PFOS排放源分为工业源和生活源;根据PFOS释放途径与形式的不同,还可分为直接源和间接源。 在PFOS排放源识别的基础上,根据工业源和生活源的不同特点,并同时考虑直接和间接排放,建立了适合我国国情的PFOS排放估算方法,其中包括针对不同工业行业、基于排放因子的PFOS工业排放估算方法,与基于市政污水处理厂中PFOS通量及多元回归模型的区域生活源排放估算方法。运用此方法估算得到我国不同地区的PFOS排放水平,并结合GIS空间分析技术,分析了我国PFOS排放格局与空间分布特征。结果表明,PFOS工业源是我国最重要的PFOS污染来源,2010年排放总量为70 t,绝大部分排入水体中;PFOS相关行业中电镀和织物处理对工业排放的贡献较大;2010年东部沿海地区PFOS生活源排放总量为376 kg,人均排放水平低于发达国家。我国PFOS排放格局存在明显的区域差异,在东部沿海省份电镀和织物处理对工业排放的贡献较大,而在西部及部分东北省份泡沫灭火是最主要的工业排放源,PFOS生产在湖北福建的贡献较为显著;东部沿海地区的工业排放水平明显高于西部及北部地区,排放密度和排放强度整体呈现由东向西递减的趋势;PFOS生活源排放在直辖市、省会城市等大城市较为突出,总体而言京津地区、珠三角和长三角地区的排放密度远高于其他地区,个别省份内部也存在显著的空间差异;PFOS工业排放和生活排放在东部沿海地区的空间分布规律相似,江苏、广东、浙江和山东是排放密度最高的四个省,直辖市中上海排放最为严重;由上述结果可发现,PFOS排放水平与区域工业化和城市化程度密切相关。 本文为编制我国PFOS排放清单提供了有益经验,研究结果可为PFOS多介质迁移转化行为的模拟及环境风险评价提供基础数据,同时为我国制定相关产业调整对策以及PFOS污染控制与管理政策提供科学依据。
英文摘要:        As new persistant organic pollutants (POPs), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and related substances have attracted broad attention from government, industry and academia. Although the production and use of PFOS-related chemicals have been restricted or eliminated in most developed countries, they are still manufactured and used in relatively large quantities in China because of the lack of cost-efficient alternatives. Consequently, PFOS pollution was widespread across China, which may pose great risks to the environment and human health. However, researches of PFOS in China were still in the initial stage. Very few studies have been done on the sources and emissions of PFOS. Due to a lack of systematic research on regional scale, it is impossible to comprehensively understand the emission status of PFOS in China, thereby difficult to effectively control and reduce PFOS pollution. In this thesis, the production and use status of PFOS-related chemicals in China were investigated through literature review and expert consultation, and then the potential sources of PFOS emission were identified. It was shown that the cumulative production of PFOS-related compounds from 2001 to 2011 was nearly 1800 t in China. At present, more than a dozen enterprises are producing PFOS and its derivatives, most of which are located in Hubei and Fujian Provinces, and the national output was 220-240 t/a. PFOS-related chemicals are widely used in many industrial and commercial fields. According to the industry scale and PFOS consumption, textile treatment, metal plating, fire-fighting and semiconductor manufacture were found to be the most important application industries in China, which have different distribution characteristics. PFOS emissions would occur over a lifetime of PFOS-related product. Based on the lifecycle stage and application range of PFOS-related chemicals, the sources of PFOS emission were divided into industrial sources and domestic sources; based on the releasing mode and form, they were also divided into direct sources and indirect sources. According to the features of industrial and domestic sources, and considering both direct and indirect sources, methodologies for estimating PFOS emissions in China were established, including estimation method for industrial emissions from differnet sectors based on emission factors, and that for regional domestic emissions based on PFOS mass flow in municipal wastewater treatment plants as well as multiple regression model. These methods integrated with GIS technique were used to calculate the PFOS emissions in different regions of China and determine the emission pattern and spatial distribution. The results indicated that PFOS-related industries were predominant sources of PFOS pollution in China. The total emission load of PFOS equivalents from industrial sources was 70 t in 2010, most of which were released to water, and greater contributions were made by metal plating and textile treatment. Meanwhile the total amount of domestic emissions in the eastern coastal region of China was 376 kg/a, at a much lower rate per capita than developed countries. The emission patterns of PFOS showed significantly geographical variations. Metal plating and textile treatment contributed greatly to the industrial emissions in most provinces of eastern China, while in western China and several northeastern provinces fire-fighting was the dominant industrial source. The contribution by PFOS manufacture was considerable in Hubei and Fujian Provinces. The eastern coastal provinces were characterized by remarkably higer industrial emission levels, and overall the emission density and intensity decreased from eastern to western China. In terms of domestic emissions of PFOS, municipalities, provincial capitals and other major cities were prominent as the emission centers. Particularly high emission densities were observed in the Beijing-Tianjin area, the Pearl River Delta and the Yangtze River Delta. Spatial variations within individual provinces were also noteworthy. The geographical distributions of PFOS emissions from industrial and domestic sources were similar to each other in the eastern coastal region of China. Jiangsu, Guangdong, Zhejiang and Shandong Provinces ranked as the top 4 for both industrial and domestic emission density, and among the municipalities Shanghai was the biggest contributor to PFOS emission. The above results revealed that the emission levels of PFOS were strongly related to the regional industrialization and urbanization. This thesis provides useful experience for compiling PFOS emission inventory in China. The results can be used as important input parameters for multimedia transport simulation and environmental risk assessment of PFOS. The conclusions will also provide scientific basis for policy making on industrial restructuring, as well as PFOS pollution control and management in China.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/35188
Appears in Collections:城市与区域生态国家重点实验室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
谢双蔚. 我国全氟辛烷磺酸(PFOS)排放源识别与排放估算研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2013.
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