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题名: 真空排水技术在我国分散污水治理中的应用研究
作者: 李学雷
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 2013
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 范彬
关键词: 真空排水技术 ; 分散污水治理 ; vacuum drainage technology ; 真空排导 ; 真空源分离 ; 效益评价
其他题名: The Application Research on the Vacuum Drainage Technology in the Decentralized Wastewater Treatment
中文摘要:       真空排水技术在分散污水治理具有很多优势,但是目前真空排水技术在我国的实践应用还很少。针对这一情况,本文依托真空排导和真空源分离两项示范工程的建设,分析了在现有技术水平下真空排水技术工程实施的可行性,在分析现有建设成本和运行成本的基础上指出了成本下降的空间,总结工程实施过程中出现的主要问题并提出改进建议,研发了解决厨房污染问题的设备——真空厨集器,并进行了样机测试。以江苏省常熟市为例建立了真空源分离技术路线,并将其与常用的末端处理技术进行了效益对比。 真空排导技术可以解决多种复杂地形条件下的污水输送问题。主要建设费用来源于收集井、真空管网和总控系统,与传统市政排水管网相比,吨水建设成本略高,单位长度成本较低,主要是因为污水产生点较分散。主要故障集中在真空泵和中控系统,可以实现30min内故障的定位与维修。 真空源分离系统可以实现家庭重污水和轻污水的高效分离,所分离重污水的主要污染物浓度是轻污水的50倍以上,收集的黑水浓度是一般生活污水浓度的10~28倍,具有良好的资源化利用价值,灰水中污染物浓度可以达到国家二级排放标准。节水效果显著,系统耗电量小。主要建设费用来源于真空便器和真空管网,主要运行费用来源于人工费和交通费。主要故障集中在真空便器和真空泵站。 真空厨集器可以实现厨房重污水和轻污水的分离,并可将厨余垃圾纳入污水系统,解决了厨房的污染问题,关键功能是垃圾粉碎、污水分离和污水传输。不同物料粉碎时能耗和物耗不同,粉碎后的水量和水质也不同。在最佳粉碎条件下,真空厨集器粉碎厨余垃圾后污水中COD、总氮、总磷浓度分别为一般生活污水相应污染物浓度的28、6、5倍,与厕所污水混合具有很好的资源化价值。 真空源分离与末端处理的效益对比研究结果显示:与末端处理技术相比,真空源分离系统节水效果显著,节水17%,物质流分析表明有机物和营养物质利用率均较高;在成本方面,真空源分离系统的建设成本和运行成本均较低,减去运行收益,则真空源分离总成本比末端处理低13~29元/(人?年);在技术方面,真空源分离具有管道设计灵活、施工难度低、沿线污染低等优点,但也具有产品成熟性低、设计经验少的劣势。
英文摘要:       Vacuum drainage technology has many advantages when used in decentralized sewage treatment, but the practical application of vacuum drainage technology in China is still limited. In view of this situation, this paper analyzes the project implementation feasibility of vacuum drainage technology in existing technical level relying on two demonstration projects construction of vacuum exhaust and vacuum source-separation, and points out the possibility of decline in the cost based on analysis of construction costs and operating costs of these projects. The problems among the process of project implementation are summed up and suggest improvements are put forward. A vacuum kitchen wastewater separation device (VKWAD) is developed to solve pollution problems in the kitchen and is tested. At last, taking changshu, Jiangsu as an example, the benefit comparison of vacuum source-separation was conducted compared with common end treatment technology. Vacuum exhaust technology can solve the sewage conveyance of a variety of complex terrain conditions. The prime construction cost included the cost from collection chamber, vacuum tube network and control system. Compared with the traditional municipal sewer network, the cost for per ton water is a little higher and for per unit length is slightly lower, mainly because the location of sewage sources are more dispersed. The main fault is concentrated in vacuum pump and control system, fault location and repair can be achieved within 30min. Vacuum source separation system can separate black water and gray water efficiently and the main pollutant concentration in black water is 50 times more than that in gray water. And the concentration of recyclable substance in collected blackwater is 10 to 28 times more than that in domestic sewage, so the black water is valuable in resource utilization. At the same time, the pollutant concentration of gray water can meet the secondary discharge standard of GB18918-2002. Water-saving effect is remarkable and the power consumption of this system is low. The main construction costs are from the vacuum toilet and vacuum tube network, main operating costs come from labor costs and transportation costs. The main fault concentrated in vacuum toilets and the vacuum pump station. VKWAD can separate heavy water and light water in kitchen and set kitchen garbage into wastewater system to solve the pollution problem of the kitchen, the key function is crushing the garbage, separating wastewater and sewage transmission. Energy and material consumption were different when different material was crushed into fluid and can get wastewater with different volume and quality. In the best conditions, when kitchen garbage collected from a canteen in changshu was crushed, a sewage that the concentrations of COD, total nitrogen, total phosphorus are 28, 6, 5 times more than that in demotic sewage respectively, which can mixed with toilet sewage and reused as good resource. The vacuum source-separation system is compared with end-stage treatment technology. The results show that the vacuum source-separation system has advantage in water-saving and the water consumption is 17% less than that in end-stage treatment. Material flow analysis shows that more organic matter and nutrients are reused in source-separation. In terms of cost, the construction costs and operating costs are lower in the vacuum source separation system and the total cost is 13 to 29 yuan less for per person per year taking operating income into account. On the technical side, the vacuum source-separation system has the advantages of flexible pipeline design, simpler construction process and lower pollution along the collection system and the disadvantages of immature products and few design knowledge.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/35190
Appears in Collections:水污染控制技术研究室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
李学雷. 真空排水技术在我国分散污水治理中的应用研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2013.
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