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题名: 北京市生态服务功能空间特征与生态用地研究
作者: 李煜珊
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2014
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 欧阳志云
关键词: 土地利用 ; land utilization ; 生态系统服务功能 ; ecosystem service ; 生态用地 ; ecological land use
其他题名: Evaluation of spatial characteristic of ecosystem services and ecological land use in Beijing
中文摘要:       生态系统为人类提供了丰富产品和生存环境,但剧烈的土地利用变化严重削弱了生态系统土壤保持、防风固沙、灾害控制、气候调节等服务功能,进而导致了水土流失、沙尘暴、地质灾害、热岛效应等一系列生态环境问题。如何明确区域生态系统服务功能空间特征,并将生态系统服务功能理念和信息纳入土地利用规划是当前生态系统管理面临的重大挑战。本研究以北京市为例,采用遥感、地理信息系统技术和生态经济学方法,在分析土地利用特征的基础上,评价了生态系统服务功能经济价值,明确了生态系统服务功能空间特征,提出了将生态系统服务功能评估结果纳入现有土地利用规划、增设生态用地类型的途径和方法,并提出了具体的管理建议。结果表明: (1)北京市2007年土地利用类型以林地、城镇村及工矿用地和耕地为主,三者总面积12313平方公里,占北京市总面积的75%。其中:林地面积占42.35%;城镇村及工矿用地面积占总17.57%;耕地面积占15.12%;园地总面积占7.75%;草地面积占8.66%;水域及水利设施用地面积占4.56%;交通运输用地面积接近1%;其它土地面积占3.11%。 (2)北京市生态系统服务功能的总价值为1825.82亿元。其中:生态系统产品提供功能价值为455.66亿元,支持功能价值为156.14亿元,调节功能价值为722.81亿元,文化服务功能价值为517.34亿元。生态系统调节功能经济价值的比例最大,保护北京市生态系统调节功能对于维持生态系统服务功能、保障北京市生态安全具有举足轻重的意义。 (3)北京市生态极重要区面积5907平方公里,占总面积的36%;生态重要区面积7450平方公里,占总面积的45.4%。生态极重要区集中分布区分别为:西北生物多样性保护极重要区,西南生物多样性保护极重要区和地质灾害高度敏感区,密云及怀柔交界区水源涵养和地下水保护极重要区,永定河下游防风固沙极重要区,昌平区自然文化景观保护极重要区。加强生态重要区保护对于保障区域生态功能、增强区域生态安全和可持续发展能力具有重要意义。 (4)生态用地是具有极重要生态系统服务功能,保障区域生态安全所必须保护的以发挥生态系统服务功能为主要目的的一类土地。依据生态系统服务功能重要性评价,生态用地总面积为5722.05平方公里,约占全市国土面积的34.87%。规划生态用地由水源涵养用地、水土保持用地、生物多样性保护用地、生态防护用地、城市绿地等组成。通过土地利用规划途径保护生态用地,将有助于区域生态系统服务功能的保护。 (5)为了加强区域生态系统服务功能保护,增强区域可持续发展能力,建议:(i)在现有土地利用分类体系中增加生态用地类型;(ii)土地利用规划和管理要体现生态优先,优先保障生态用地;(iii)基于生态重要性的土地分级开发利用和管理,实施基于生态服务功能重要性的土地分类型管理;(iv)完善生态用地的生态补偿机制。 上述研究表明,将生态系统服务理念应用于土地利用规划和管理既可为生态用地的确定提供有效方法,也可为区域生态系统服务功能的保护途径。
英文摘要:       Ecosystem provides abundant product and survival environment for human beings. Sudden change of land use weakens ecosystem services function, such as soil conservation, wind prevention and sand fixation, Disaster control, and climatic regulation. Hence, it results in series of ecotope problem----soil and water loss, dust storm, geologic hazard, heat island effect, etc. it is great challenge for ecosystem management to identify the regional ecological system spatial characteristic and to combine ecosystem services theory and information with land use plan. Based on the analyzing land use characteristic of Beijing, the paper assessed the economic value of ecosystem services function, identified ecosystem service spatial feature, proposed the way and methods of combining ecosystem services evaluating results with present land use plan and adding sorts of ecological land, by the way of remote sensing, GIS, and ecological economy methods. And then the paper gave some suggestions. The results showed that: 1. In 2007, sorts of land use mainly included forest, urban village and industrial land and farmland. The all three areas are 12313 square kilometer, about 75% of the total area of Beijing. Forest area covered 42.35%. Urban village and industrial land area covered 17.57%.Farmland area covered 15.12%. Garden area covered 7.75%.Grassland area covered 8.66%.Water and water conservancy facilities land area covered 4.56%. Transportation land area covered nearly 1%. The rest land use area covered 3.11%。 2. The total value of Beijing ecosystem services is 182.6 billion RMB yuan, including 45.6 billion RMB yuan of providing value, 15.6 billion RMB yuan of supporting value, 77.3 billion RMB yuan of conditioning value, and 51.7 billion RMB yuan of culture value. The proportion of ecosystem conditioning function value is heavier than others. Hence, it is important to protect ecosystem conditioning function of Beijing for the sake of sustaining ecosystem service and providing ecological safety of Beijing. 3. The most important ecological area of Beijing covers 5,907 square kilometer, almost 36% of total Beijing area. The important ecological area of Beijing covers 7,450 square kilometer, almost 45.4% of total Beijing area. The important ecological distribution area of Beijing are: northwest biodiversity conservation extremely important areas, southwest biodiversity conservation extremely important areas and geological hazards in highly sensitive areas, Miyun and Huairou junction water conservation and groundwater protection extremely important areas, the lower reaches of Yongding river sand fixing extremely important areas, and Changping District natural and cultural landscape protection extremely important areas. It is great significance to strengthen ecological important area protection for the sake of protecting regional ecological area and strengthening regional ecological safety and sustainability. 4. Ecological land possess extremely important ecosystem service function. It aims to protect regional ecological safe in order to supply ecosystem service. Based on the importance evaluation of ecosystem service, the total area of ecological land is 5722.05 square kilometer, almost 34.87% of Beijing land area. Planning ecological land is composed of Water conservation land, Soil and water conservation land, Biological diversity protection land, Ecological protection land and urban green space. It will benefit to protect regional ecosystem service by land use planning. 5. In order to strengthen regional ecosystem service protection, to enhance regional sustainability, my suggestions are: (i) add ecological land in the present land use catalog system; (ii) present ecology first in land use planning and management, guarantee the priority of ecological land; (iii) carry out cataloging land management, based on the importance of ecosystem service function; (iv) promote the mechanism for ecological compensation of ecological land The stud
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/35195
Appears in Collections:城市与区域生态国家重点实验室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
李煜珊. 北京市生态服务功能空间特征与生态用地研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2014.
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