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题名: 东北地区野生动植物及自然生境的保护效果研究
作者: 栾雪菲
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 2014
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 徐卫华
关键词: 东北地区 ; Northeast ; 自然保护区 ; nature reserve ; 野生动植物 ; wildlife ; 自然生境 ; natural ecosystems ; 人类活动干扰 ; human disturbance ; 保护现状
其他题名: Effectiveness of Nature Reserves in Protected Wildlife and Natural Habitat in Northeast China
中文摘要:       大尺度的物种及自然生境保护效果评估对于生物多样性保护与自然保护区规划具有重要意义。本研究以东北地区为研究区,以自然保护区科学考察报告和生态系统分类数据位基础,通过模拟与统计分析,从野生动植物的保护状况、自然生境的保护现状与变化、人类活动干扰的现状与变化三个方面评估了自然保护区体系对物种及自然生境的保护与管理效果。研究结果表明: (1)东北地区自然保护区共分布有野生高等植物3500余种,占全国野生高等植物总数的11.62%;陆生脊椎动物974种(含变种),约占全国动物总数的15.3%,其中国家I级保护动物80种,国家II级保护动物242种,分别占全国I、II级保护动物总数的48.8%与76.8%,东北地区自然保护区对全国野生生物保护的总体贡献较大。 (2)保护区内野生动物物种数随着自然保护区数目与面积的增加而增加,但不同类群存在差异。当保护区数量为57个,面积达到4×104km2后,两栖类、爬行类物种数增加缓慢,而鸟类、哺乳类的种—面积曲线未见减缓趋势,新增自然保护区应该多考虑鸟类、哺乳类的保护需求。 (3)国家重点保护物种在自然保护区的出现次数差异大,62.1%的物种仅在1个保护区出现,3.6%的物种在20个以上的保护区出现,自然保护区的建设对丹顶鹤、大天鹅与猞猁、紫貂等少数物种关注多,其它保护物种关注较少。 (4)目前森林、草地、灌丛与湿地这四类自然生境在国家级自然保护区的保护比例仅为6.16%,93.84%的自然生境没有在国家级自然保护区得到保护。其中草地与森林最低,保护比例仅为4.68%与6.06%;湿地次之,为15.23%;灌丛较高,为37.68% (5)2000至2010年,国家级自然保护区内森林、草地、灌丛三类自然生境面积分别增加了0.02%,0.53%,0.21%,但湿地面积减少了0.87%。与保护区外5km范围内相比,保护区内森林、草地与灌丛的增加比例高于保护区外,但湿地减少比例比保护区外更高。自然保护区对森林、草地、灌丛的保护效果较好,但湿地生境的保护效果不佳。 (6)东北地区国家级自然保护区中人类活动范围广、强度大,并有增长趋势。2010年,89.4%的保护区中分布有农田,90.9%的保护区中分布有建设用地,从2000年至2010年,农田和建设用地面积增长趋势明显。从不同的功能分区来看,2010年62.1%的核心区和66.7%的缓冲区中有农田分布,63.6%的核心区和31.8%缓冲区有建设用地分布;从2000年至2010年,76.8%的核心区和64.3%缓冲区农田面积降低,但幅度很小,总体看来农田面积仍然增加。几乎全部的保护区功能区内建设用地面积有所增加。自然保护区对人类活动的管控力度不够。
英文摘要:       The effectiveness evaluation on species protection in large-scale is of significance for species conservation and nature reserve planning. Studying on the area of Northeast China, based on the nature reserves scientific investigation reports and ecosystem classification of data bits, through simulation and statistical analysis evaluated the conservation status of wildlife, natural habitat and human disturbance activities. Results show that: (1) Nature Reserves established in Northeast covered 974 animals species and 322 of national key protection animal species, occupying 37.3% of total number of animals species and 63.6% of total number of national key protection animals species in China. (2) The number of species increased with increase of nature reserves but showed differences between different group of species The total number of Amphibians, Reptiles species almost did not increased when the number of the nature reserves reached 57 and the total area of reached 4×104km2. But the total number of Birds and Mammals species increased, which indicated that new nature reserves should give more consideration to the birds and mammals. (3) Protection times in nature reserves was different among different National key protected species, with 62.1% of the species only occurred once in one protected area, and 3.6% of them occurred in more than 20 protected areas. Few species including red-crowned cranes and swans showed more protection attention, but less attention to the other species. The results of this study will contribute to optimization of spatial patterns of eastern nature reserve and improvement of the species protection efficiency. (4) In the National Nature Reserves of Northeast China, Natural habitat: Forests, shrubs, grasslands occupied only 6.16%. 93.84% of natural habitat is non-proteceted. The grasslands and forests’ proportion was the least. Wetlands’ proportion was the second and shrubs’ was the highest. (5) Between 2000 and 2010, the proportion of forests, grasslands, shrubs in National Nature Reserves increased 0.02%,0.53%,0.21%, but the proportion of wetlands decreased 0.87%. Compared with the 5km range outside protected areas, the proportion of forests, grasslands, shrubs in nature reserves is higher, the effect is good. But the effect of protecting wetlands is bad. (6)There has a wide range and strong growth trends of human activities in Northeast National Nature Reserve. In 2010, 89.4% nature reserves had farmlands and 90.9% had construction lands. Between 2000 and 2010, the area of farmlands and construction lands were increasing. In different: In 2010, 62.1% core area and 66.7% buffer had farmlands. 63.6% core area and 31.8% buffer had construction lands. Between 2000 and 2010, 76.8% core area and 64.3% buffer had a decreased trend of farmlands. But the total aera of farmlands were increasing. Nearly in all of the functional areas did the construction lands increased. Management and control of human activities is not enough in nature reserves.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/35196
Appears in Collections:城市与区域生态国家重点实验室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
栾雪菲. 东北地区野生动植物及自然生境的保护效果研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2014.
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