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题名: 铁路工程建设的水土流失影响预测研究——以赤大白铁路为例
作者: 周政达
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2014
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 吴钢
关键词: 铁路工程 ; railway engineering ; 水土流失 ; water and soil erosion ; 赤大白铁路 ; Chidabai railway ; 水土保持 ; conservation of water and soil
其他题名: Research on the Impact of the Railway Construction on Soil Erosion Along the Line——A Case Study of Chidabai Railway Construction Project
中文摘要:       铁路作为国家与社会发展的重要基础设施,在社会经济活动中起着十分重要的作用。目前,随着铁路公路等交通建设的大力发展,交通建设所引发的次生裸地日益增多,铁路建设产生大量人为水土流失。由于铁路建设属线型开发建设项目,战线长,对地面扰动类型多,占压、破坏原地貌植被,使得表土层抗蚀能力减弱,降低或丧失了原地貌的水土保持功能,对整个区域生态环境造成较大破坏。 本论文研究的赤大白铁路沿线区域位于内蒙古中东部生态环境极度脆弱的干旱草原区,属《内蒙古自治区人民政府关于划分水土流失重点防治区的通告》中的水土流失重点治理区和水土流失重点预防保护区。该区域春季大风多,夏季暴雨集中,沿线自然环境较差,草地植被过度利用,水力侵蚀与风力侵蚀在时间上交错、在空间上叠加,极易发生水土流失。铁路工程建设的施工过程不仅占压或破坏农田、草地及沙地植被,而且会造成表土层抗蚀能力明显减弱,加剧原地面水土流失的发生与发展,加快土地沙漠化进程。针对主体工程建设特点开展水土流失预测研究,可为科学控制工程建设可能造成的水土流失,减少入河泥沙量,改善建设区及周边生态环境,实现区域社会经济可持续发展提供指导与理论支持。 本论文在充分了解铁路工程建设区自然环境特征、社会经济情况的基础上,通过现场调查,对沿线不同地貌类型区的土地利用、植被盖度、水土流失现状进行现场勘察与分析,明确水土流失现状,通过对自然侵蚀外营力和人为因素的水土流失成因分析,探索铁路工程建设特点及施工产生的水土流失类型、分布、形成机理。通过对可能造成的水土流失面积和水土流失危害进行有效预测,得出结果如下: (1)赤大白铁路工程建设水土流失的预测时段为共计5.5年,其中施工准备期0.5年,施工期3年,植被恢复期2年; (2)通过对赤大白铁路工程建设区可能发生水土流失面积总计为2184.48hm2,其中,低山丘陵区水土流失面积1808.54hm2,冲积平原区水土流失面积125.54hm2,风沙区水土流失面积250.40hm2; (3)新增水土流失量的分布,从工程布局上来看,主要集中在路基区,占新增水土流失总量的58.69%,从地貌类型上看,主要分布在低山丘陵区,占新增水土流失总量的84.92%,从施工阶段上,主要集中在施工期,占新增水土流失总量的80.74%; (4)铁路建设过程中路基施工区、施工便道及临时施工场地区是造成水土流失的严重区域,应作为水土流失防治体系中的重点防治区。 本研究对控制铁路工程建设可能造成的水土流失,减少入河泥沙量,保障土地资源的永续利用,改善建设区及周边生态环境,保证铁路运行安全,实现区域社会经济可持续发展等具有重要的现实意义,同时也为水土保持监督管理部门提供科学依据。
英文摘要:       Railway, as an important infrastructure of national and social development, plays a crucial role in the social economic activities. Now, with the vigorous development of transportation construction, such as railway and highway construction, there are more and more secondary bare land made by transportation construction, railway construction produces a large number of man-made soil erosion. Railway construction belongs to linear projects, it has long front, many types of ground disturbance, tying up and destroying the original topography vegetation will make the surface soil corrosion capacity diminished, makes soil and water conservation features of the original landscape of the entire region ecology reduced or even lost, cause severe environmental damages. The study area in this paper is along the Chidabai railway, which is located in an arid steppe with extremely fragile ecological environment in eastern Inner Mongolia, it is the key governance areas of soil erosion and soil erosion prevention focus protected areas listed in “The Notice of Division of Erosion Prevention District of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region People's Government”. This region has strong spring winds and concentrated summer storms, along the natural environment is poor, excessive use of grassland vegetation, water erosion and wind erosion staggered in time, superimposed on the space prone to soil erosion. The railway construction process not only tying up and destroy farmland, grassland and sandy vegetation, but also significantly reduce the corrosion resistance of the topsoil, increase soil erosion, accelerate the process of land desertification . Research carried out for the soil erosion prediction of main construction features, can scientifically control the erosion may be caused by construction, reduce the amount of sediment into the river, improve the ecological environment construction and surrounding areas, provide guidance and theoretical support to achieve sustainable socio-economic development of the region. In this paper, on the basis of full knowledge of the natural environment characteristics, socio-economic situation of railway construction zone, through on-site investigation, land use, vegetation cover and soil erosion of the current situation were prospected and analyzed, make clear of the current situation, through natural causes soil erosion on outside forces and the erosion of human factors analysis to explore the type of soil erosion and construction of railway construction features produced , distributed , formation mechanism . Through the area of soil erosion and soil erosion may cause harm to effectively predict the outcome, conclusions are as follows: (1) The predicted total soil erosion period of Chidabai railway construction is 5.5 years, including construction period of 0.5 years of preparation, the construction period of 3 years , vegetation recovery period of 2 years ; (2) Through the Chidabai railway construction zone area of soil erosion may occur totaled 2184.48hm2, where the hilly area of soil erosion area 1808.54hm2, alluvial plains area of soil erosion 125.54hm2, sandy soil erosion area 250.40hm2; (3) Newly increased amount of soil erosion distribution, from the project layout, mainly concentrated in the embankment area , accounting for 58.69% of total new soil erosion , from the point of view landforms , mainly in the hilly areas, the proportion of new 84.92% of the total increase in soil erosion from the construction phase , mainly in the construction period , accounting for 80.74% of total new soil erosion ; (4) The roadbed construction areas, construction of access roads and temporary construction site area in railway construction is a serious area of soil erosion, erosion control system should be used as a key prevention areas. This study has important practical significance in controlling the soil erosion that might caused by railway construction, reducing the amount of sediment into the river, protecting sustaina
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/35202
Appears in Collections:城市与区域生态国家重点实验室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
周政达. 铁路工程建设的水土流失影响预测研究——以赤大白铁路为例[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2014.
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