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题名: 基于能值分析和生态用地分类的中国生态系统生产总值核算研究
作者: 喻锋; 李晓波; 王宏; 张丽君; 徐卫华; 符蓉
刊名: 生态学报
出版日期: 2016
卷号: 36, 期号:6, 页码:1663-1675
关键词: 能值 ; 生态用地 ; 生态系统 ; 生产总值
其他题名: Accounting of Gross Ecosystem Product based on emergy analysis and ecological land classification in China
中文摘要: 生态系统生产总值是生态系统为人类提供的产品与服务价值的总和,研究与建立一个独立的核算一个国家或地区的生态系统生产总值的方法与体系,对科学评价与合理利用自然资源、助推生态文明建设等具有重要意义。将生态系统生产总值分为供给价值、文化价值、承载价值与调节价值等四大类,基于能值分析方法和生态用地分类体系,计算得出全国及各地区生态系统生产总值,并将其与国内生产总值进行比较,为自然资源资产负债核算和综合生态系统管理等研究提供理论和方法借鉴。研究结果表明:(1)生态用地分类体系包括湿地、森林、草地和其他生态土地4个一级类型、19个二级类型。其中,湿地、森林、草地可统称为基础性生态用地。2008年,中国生态用地总量为763.95万km~2 ,约占陆域国土面积的80%,其中基础性生态用地约为530.8万km~2。(2)2008年,中国国土生态系统生产总值约为19万亿美元,是当年国内生产总值4.71万亿美元的4倍,人均生态系统总值约为1.45万美元/人。从生态系统生产总值来看,广东、山东、河南位居前三,西藏最低;从人均生态系统生产总值来看,西藏和内蒙古居前,甘肃最低。
部门归属: 城市与区域生态国家重点实验室
英文摘要: Gross Ecosystem Product (GEP) can be defined as the value of products and services provided by ecosystems to human beings. It is significant in considering the value of final goods and services produced by the population of a country or region in a given period. In general,the natural environment,upon which human beings rely for their existence and development,should be viewed within the compound economy-society-nature system. Thus,the value of goods and services provided by ecosystems should be incorporated within economic accounting systems. Recently,there have been a number of attempts to refine social development evaluation using measures such as Gross National Happiness Index and Human Development Index. In addition,many researchers have estimated the value of ecosystem services using approaches such as the market value method,shadow price assessment,alternative engineering method,and opportunity cost approach. However,their studies lack unified accounting indicators and accounting systems that are matched with the framework of national economic statistics. In this paper,an integrated method was proposed for estimating the value of GEP,taking into account ecosystem supplies,ecological cultural values,adjustable land values,and carrying capacities. A detailed emergy analysis was introduced into the assessment of resource supplies,cultural values,and carrying capacities. A numerical model was adopted to estimate adjustable values based on the classification and size of ecological land,as well as the corresponding adjustable value of an individual type of ecological land. Moreover,the results of gross national and regional ecosystem production were compared with the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The results indicate that this method could offer theoretical and technical insights in assessing natural resource assets and liabilities for business accounting and integrated ecosystem management purposes. It is also of great significance for the scientific evaluation and rational utilization of natural resources and in promoting the creation of an ecologically sustainable civilization. Based on the main functions of ecosystem services,ecological land can be classified into 4 types,namely wetland,forest,grassland,and other ecological land,as well as 19 sub-types. Among these types,wetland,forest,and grassland should be regarded as fundamental ecological land. The results indicated that in 2008,the area of ecological land in China was 7.6395 million km~2, accounting for about 80 percent of the entire land area,and the extent of other ecological land was approximately 5.308 million km~2 . Meanwhile,the total value of land ecological supplies,ecological cultural values,and ecological carrying capacity in 2008 was 18.16 trillion dollars in China. The above ecosystem services accounted for 18.8,8.4,and 72.8 percent respectively of the total value. The value of land ecology adjusting measured by basic ecological land was 835.12 billion dollars. The total value of GEP in China was about 19 trillion dollars in 2008. Compared with the GDP for that year, namely,4.71 trillion dollars,GEP was four times as much as GDP. GEP per capita was about 14500 dollars. The values of GEP in different provinces of China were found to vary. The values of GEP in Guangdong,Shandong,and Henan provinces were bigger than those in other provinces,while the value of GEP in Tibet was the lowest. However,the values of per capita GEP in Tibet and Inner Mongolia were the top two among all of the provinces. In contrast,the per capita value in Gansu province was the lowest.
内容类型: 期刊论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/36505
Appears in Collections:城市与区域生态国家重点实验室_期刊论文

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