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题名: 中国实施2020年全球生物多样性目标的进展
作者: 徐海根; 丁晖; 欧阳志云; 张文国; 崔鹏; 徐卫华; 刘立; 吴军; 卢晓强; 曹铭昌; 陈炼; 乐志芳; 吴翼; 雷军成
刊名: 生态学报
出版日期: 2016
卷号: 36, 期号:13, 页码:3847-3858
关键词: 爱知目标 ; 指标体系 ; 红色名录指数 ; 海洋营养指数 ; 就地保护 ; 生境恢复
其他题名: Assessing China's progress toward the 2020 Global Biodiversity Targets
中文摘要: 针对日益严峻的生物多样性丧失形势,国际社会于2010年通过了《生物多样性战略计划》(20112020年)。该战略计划确定了2020年全球生物多样性目标。采用压力-状态-惠益-响应模型,建立了评估2020年目标进展的指标体系。该指标体系包括生物多样性现状、生态系统服务、压力和响应4个方面,涉及17个一级指标、42个二级指标。研究表明,除目标2、16和18因缺乏相应指标无法评估外,目标1、3、4、5、7、10、11、14、15、17、19、20的相关评估指标均有不同程度的改善,表明这些目标的实施正沿着正确的轨道推进,特别是目标3(鼓励措施)、目标5(减少生境退化和丧失)、目标11(强化保护区系统和有效管理)、目标14(恢复和保障重要生态系统服务)、目标15(增强生态系统的复原力和碳储量)进展较大; 但目标5中的草原生态系统保护,目标6(可持续渔业)、目标8(控制环境污染)、目标9(防治外来入侵物种)、目标12(保护受威胁物种)、目标13(保护遗传资源)的相关评估指标大多呈现恶化的趋势,表明虽然已开展了大量工作,但尚需采取更加有效的策略和措施才能实现这些目标。今后应进一步开发生物多样性价值、可持续消费、生态退化、农林渔业对生物多样性的影响、气候变化对生物多样性的影响、保护区的生态代表性和管理有效性、遗传资源和相关传统知识的获取与惠益分享等方面的指标,更加重视生态功能和生物多样性的恢复,重视濒危物种和遗传资源的保护以及外来入侵物种的防控。
部门归属: 城市与区域生态国家重点实验室
英文摘要: In 2002,the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity ( CBD) committed to achieving a significant reduction in the rate of biodiversity loss by 2010. After failing to meet this goal,the international communities renewed their commitments and,in 2010,adopted the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 20112020,including the 2020 global biodiversity targets ( Aichi Biodiversity Targets) . As a Party to the CBD,it is important for China to assess progress toward the 2020 targets,and identify gaps and future priorities for biodiversity conservation. We created an indicator system for assessing the 2020 targets based on a pressure-state-benefit-response framework. The indicator system contains 17 Class A indicators and 42 Class B indicators. It covers four major aspects: ( 1) the status of biodiversity ( the extent of forests,grasslands, wetlands,and deserts; total standing stock volume; stock volume of natural forests; total output of fresh grass in natural grasslands; the Marine Trophic Index; the Red List Index; and traditional varieties and breeds used in production) ; ( 2) ecosystem services ( supply of goods; water regulation; windbreaks; sand control; soil conservation; per capita annual net income of rural households; and the number of people in poverty in regions where natural forest conservation projects were implemented) ; ( 3) pressure ( annual waste water emissions; COD from industrial wastewater; SO2 from exhaust gas; soot from exhaust gas and industrial solid wastes; annual application of pesticides and fertilizers; climate change; the number of new invasive alien species found every two decades; and the number and batch of harmful species intercepted by customs and port authorities) ; and ( 4) response ( the number and area of protected areas; forest growing stock in counties where natural forest conservation projects were implemented; capacity of flue-gas desulfurization ( FGD) units; treatment rate of municipal wastewater; comprehensive utilization rate of solid waste; area of solar water heaters; the number of solar stoves; annual output of agricultural waste disposal projects; websites about China's biodiversity found using a Google search; the number of academic papers on biodiversity identified through a search of the VIP literature database; and investments into projects on natural forest resource protection,wildlife conservation in nature reserves,and wetland conservation) . We assessed progress toward the 2020 Biodiversity Targets using these biodiversity indicators. For Targets 2,16,and 18,no assessments were made because of a lack of relevant national indicators. The indicators identified various levels of improvement in Targets 1,3,4,5,7,10,11,14,15,17,19,and 20; China is on track toward meeting these targets. In particular,considerable progress has been made toward Target 3 ( incentive measures) ,Target 5 ( reduction in habitat degradation and loss for ecosystems other than grasslands) ,Target 11 ( increasing protected areas and strengthening management effectiveness) ,Target 14 ( restoring important ecosystem services) ,and Target 15 ( reinforcing ecosystem resilience and carbon sequestration) . However,decreasing trends were noted for Target 5 ( primarily for indicators of grassland conservation) ,Target 6 ( sustainable fisheries) ,Target 8 ( controlling environmental pollution) ,Target 12 ( protecting endangered species) ,and Target 13 ( protecting genetic resources) .
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