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题名: 基于生态通道模型的长江口水域生态系统结构与能量流动分析
作者: 韩瑞; 陈求稳; 王丽; 汤新武; 沈新强
刊名: 生态学报
出版日期: 2016
卷号: 36, 期号:15, 页码:4907-4918
关键词: 生态通道模型 ; 长江口水域 ; 生态系统结构 ; 能量流动
其他题名: Analysis of the ecosystem structure and energy flow of the Yangtze River estuary and adjacent seas,based on the Ecopath model
中文摘要: 利用Ecopath with Ecosim在前期研究的基础上构建了3个时期(2000年秋、2006年秋、2012年秋)长江口水域生态系统的生态通道模型,分析对比了三峡工程蓄水前中后期,长江口水域生态系统结构与能量流动特征。模型将长江口水域生态系统划分为鱼类、虾类、蟹类、头足类、底栖动物、浮游动物、浮游植物、碎屑等17个功能组,基本覆盖了长江口生态系统能量流动的主要途径。模型结果分析表明:蓄水前中后期,长江口水域生态系统各功能组营养级组成和分布相近,但由于长江口渔业过度捕捞,蓄水中后期多数功能组的生态营养转换率被动提高。长江口渔获物的组成未发生明显变化,但渔获物的平均营养级降低,渔获量减少。蓄水中后期,生态系统中牧食食物链的重要性增加,碎屑食物链的重要性降低,这与蓄水之后长江入海径流改变、泥沙量减少、陆源污染增加关系密切。结果表明,蓄水前中后期,生态系统均处于不成熟阶段,蓄水后生态系统总生物量、初级生产量及流向碎屑的能量呈降低趋势,但系统的净效率和再循环率升高。
部门归属: 环境纳米材料实验室
英文摘要: The cumulative impacts of water conservancy projects in the Yangtze River basin,especially the Three Gorges Reservoir,have had a significant effect on the biological and ecological integrity of the Yangtze River estuarine ecosystem. This research establishes three ecopath models of the Yangtze River estuary and adjacent seas before (the autumn of 2000), during (the autumn of 2006),and after (the autumn of 2012) the impoundments of the Three Gorges Reservoir,using Ecopath and Ecosim software to characterize and compare the estuarine ecosystem' s food web structure and energy flow. Sensitivity analyses were carried out to evaluate the uncertainty levels of the models. The three models consisted of 17 functional groups covering the main paths of the ecosystem food web,including piscivorous fishes,generalist predators, shrimp predators,zooplanktivores,crab predators,other pelagic fishes,other demersal fishes,other benthic fishes, shrimp,crabs,jellyfish,cephalopods,macrobenthos,meiobenthos,zooplankton,phytoplankton,and detritus. The simulated results showed that the values of trophic levels (TL) ranged from 1.000 to 3.802 in 2000 (before the impoundments),from 1.000 to 4.058 in 2006 (during the impoundments),and from 1.000 to 4.019 in 2012 (after the impoundments). This indicates that the TLs distributions of the functional groups were similar under all three conditions. However,the ecotrophic efficiencies of commercial species,such as Pseudosciaena polyactis,were elevated because of the increased fishing intensity in the Yangtze River estuary. The structure of catches did not change noticeably during this period,but the mean trophic level of the catch decreased from 3.406 to 3.369,as did the number of catches (from 1.026 t km~(-2) a~(-1) to 0.719 t km~(-2) a~(-1)). Meanwhile,after the impoundments the role of the detritus food chain became less important to the energy transfer process than that of the grazing food chain,and over 90% of the energy flows were assembled in TL I and II,most of which flow into detritus and could be a source of internal pollution. The total transfer efficiency of the Yangtze River estuary ecosystem was 10.2% in 2000,10.0% in 2006 and 9.4% in 2012. All of these negative effects are likely to be closely related to reductions in freshwater and sediment discharges,as well as the increase of land-based pollution in the Yangtze River Basin. Furthermore,the result also showed that the parameters of total biomass,total primary production,and the sum of all flows into detritus gradually decreased; however,the gross efficiency, Finn cycling index,Finn's mean path length,and system omnivory index increased. The ecosystems (before,during,and after impoundments) were found to remain in the immature stage.
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内容类型: 期刊论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/36602
Appears in Collections:环境纳米材料实验室_期刊论文

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韩瑞,陈求稳,王丽,等. 基于生态通道模型的长江口水域生态系统结构与能量流动分析[J]. 生态学报,2016,36(15):4907-4918.
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