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题名: 未培养微生物的培养方法进展
作者: 范念斯; 齐嵘; 杨敏
刊名: 应用与环境生物学报
出版日期: 2016
卷号: 22, 期号:3, 页码:524-530
关键词: 环境微生物 ; 未培养微生物 ; 限制因素 ; 培养方法 ; 分子生物学技术
其他题名: Current technical progresses in the cultivation for uncultured microorganism
中文摘要: 在自然界庞大的微生物资源中,传统条件下可分离培养的微生物仅占1%,绝大多数则是尚未在人工条件下获得生长活性的未培养微生物(Uncultured microorganism).未培养微生物的难培养在于无法全面掌握它们原位(In situ)生长的环境信息及在人工条件下的准确复制,从而阻碍了环境微生物的特性研究和资源开发.本文详细介绍了目前对未培养微生物原位生长信息的主要认知及限制实现条件,系统总结了当今未培养微生物的最新培养方法进展.以新型培养基、高通量和微流控等为代表的各种新型培养装置与技术的应用,显著提高了未培养微生物的分离及培养效率,分离出不同环境中的多种未培养微生物,例如肠道细菌Ruminococcaceae、浮游细菌Formosa和土壤细菌 Candidate N. defluvii等.分子生物学技术在近十几年快速发展和广泛应用,特别是通过高通量测序和宏基因组测序,在基因功能水平上探索微生物代谢途径和生理生化机制的研究,为快速寻找适宜人工培养条件、规避传统方法的长周期弊端提供了可能.总之,新培养技术的出现显著提高了微生物的可培养比例,基于分子生物学方法的研究结果不仅大大丰富了微生物资源库,为种群多样性的深入研究及在生态系统中的作用奠定了良好的基础,更是为今后微生物分离与培养技术的提高指出了明确方向.(图2参60)
部门归属: 环境化学与生态毒理学国家重点实验室
英文摘要: Only 1% of the natural microorganisms can be artificially isolated and cultured. The large quantity of uncultured microorganisms, the microbes that cannot be kept alive in artificial conditions, is therefore a vast reservoir of natural microorganism resources. One of the major obstacles for further research on these uncultured microorganisms lies in understanding the in situ surviving environmental essentials and precisely duplicating them in the lab condition. This article systematically summarizes the limitation of the present knowledge about in situ environment, related research experiences and advances in the decades. The cultured proportion of uncultured microorganisms has improved owing to the new culture methods and facilities advances, represented as novel or modified media, high throughput sequencing and microfluidics. Many uncultured bacteria from various environment were isolated including intestinal bacteria (Ruminococcaceae), bacterioplankton(Formosa) and soil bacteria (Candidate N. defluvii). Based on the dramatic progress of molecular biological methodology, particularly gene annotation of amplicon sequencing and metagenome sequencing to reveal the metabolic mechanism, a promising approach was predictable to quickly find suitable culture conditions and avoid the weakness of traditional methods. Therefore, as an effort of new culture technology application, the cultivation of uncultured microorganism is relied on the molecular biological method evolution, which is not only a basic and efficient experimental tool of microbial diversity and ecosystem researches, but also illustrate the direction of coming isolation and cultivation.
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内容类型: 期刊论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/36617
Appears in Collections:环境化学与生态毒理学国家重点实验室_期刊论文

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