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题名: 三类卤代消毒副产物的分布特征及生成影响因素初探
作者: 宝露尔
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 2016-05
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 杨敏
关键词: 饮用水,消毒副产物,分布特征,生成势 drinking water,disinfection by-products, distribution characteristics, formation potential
其他题名: The characteristics of halogenated disinfection by-products distribution and preliminary analysis of their formation influencing factors
学位专业: 环境工程
中文摘要:     饮用水消毒过程中产生的卤代消毒副产物具有潜在的健康风险,是饮用水水质管理的重点对象。目前,三卤甲烷  (Trihalomethanes, THMs)、卤乙酸  (Haloacetic acids, HAAs  )作为最典型的卤代消毒副产物已被各国列入饮用水水质标准中予以限制。近年的研究发现,卤乙腈(Haloacetonitriles,HANs)等含氮卤代消毒副产物Nitrogenous disinfection by-products,N-DBPs)毒性高,且在饮用水中的检出率很高。然而,这类含氮消毒副产物国内外都还没有制定相关标准。因此,掌握这类含氮卤代消毒副产物的分布规律,并与常规消毒副产物进行比较,可为我国制定水质标准、有效管理饮用水水质提供科学基础。
      本研究调查了 THMs、HAAs、HANs三大类 20种消毒副产物在  11个城市31个水厂出厂水中的浓度分布,并利用不同原水进行了模拟消毒实验,初步探讨了消毒副产物生成势与水源水质之间的关系,取得如下主要结论。
    1、调查发现,在31个水厂出厂水中,THM4、HAAs和HANs的浓度范围分别为 ND-70.74 µg/L、ND-60.1 µg/L和ND-7.49 µg/L,中位值分别为 27.26 µg/L、23.31µg/L和  0.21µg/L。在受控的 4种三卤甲烷中主要为TCM和BDCM,检出率均为 100%。检测的9种卤乙酸均被检出,其中主要为CAA和TCAA,检出率分别为 42%和 65%,浓度范围分别为 ND-48.15µg/L和ND-19.21µg/L。7种卤乙腈中有 5种被检出,主要为 DCAN,检出率为 65%,其浓度范围为 ND-4.27µg/L。
    2、三类消毒副产物在不同流域之间的分布特征存在明显差异。相比较来说,THMs在黄浦江流域的浓度较低,中位值为12.73  µg/L。HAAs在太湖流域的浓度较低,中位值仅为2.75µg/L。HANs在辽河流域的浓度较高,中位值为 2.7µg/L。
    3、利用原水进行了氯和氯胺消毒模拟生成势实验。实验结果显示,氯消毒后THMsFP、HAAsFP和HANsFP范围分别为56.18-183.38µg/L、18.44-138.22µg/L和 ND-10.62µg/L;氯胺消毒过程中THMsFP、HAAsFP和  HANsFP范围分别为4.47-33.84µg/L、0.56-8.73µg/L和0.88-5.3µg/L。氯胺消毒虽能显著降低 THMsFP、HAAsFP,却会增加 HANsFP,表明选择消毒方式对消毒副产物的生成有很大影响。
    4、利用三维荧光光谱对14个原水中的天然有机物进行了表征。结果表明,14个原水中的天然有机物主要为腐殖酸类和富里酸类物质,个别水样 NOM中含有色氨酸类和可溶性微生物类似物。荧光指数的计算结果显示,大部分原水中的NOM可能为生物源有机物。
英文摘要:   Health risk and management of  halogenated disinfection by-products in drinking water is the focus of water quality management. Trihalomethanes and  haloacetic acids have been regulated in drinking water worldwide. The recent vestigations have found nitrogenous  disinfection  by-products  (N-DBPs)   like  haloacetonitriles  have  higher toxicity than  rihalomethanes and haloacetic acids, and have been  detected in drinking water frequently. However many countries and organizations have rarely regulated the nitrogenous alogenated disinfection by-products in  water. Therefore, the information of their occurrence, distribution, and  affecting factors which influence their formation is the issue of  cricial importance for setting water  quality standard and their  effective management.
    The concentration level of 20 disinfection by-products, which were divided into 3 groups, in  31 drinking  water treatment plants  (WTPs) in  11 cities  across China  was investigated  in  this   study.  Then  the  disinfection  by-products   formation  potential (DBPsFP)tests were  carried out at  bench scale to  analyze the precursors  of DBPs. The main contents and conclusions are summarized as follows.
    1、Samples from 31 WTPs were collected for the detection of disinfection by-products concentration level.  The concentration  level of  THMs, HAAs  and HANs  were ND-70.74 µg/L , ND-60.1 µg/L and ND-7.49µg/L respectively. Trichloromethane (TCM) and  bromodichloromethane  (BDCM) were  the  main  species  of  THMs.  Of HAAs, chloroacetic acid (CAA) and trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) were detected with relatively high frequency of detection. Five of seven HANs were detected and dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN) was the main species.
    2、Concentration levels of DBPs showed significant differences during different basin. Comparatively speaking, concentration of THMs was rather low in Huangpu River with a median concentration of 12.73 µg/L. Taihu basin has the lowest HAAs concentration level with a median concentration of  2.75µg/L. The concentration of HANs in Liaohe
River basin was the highest one with a median concentration of 2.7µg/L.
    3、To better understand the formation of DBPs, 14 raw water was selected to evaluate the formation potential test of DBPs during chlorination and chlorimination at a bench scale. THMsFP、HAAsFP and HANsFP  during chlorination was 56.18-183.38µg/L、18.44-138.22µg/L and ND-10.62µg/L respectively; during chloramination THMsFP、HAAsFP  and   HANsFP   was  4.47-33.84µg/L、   0.56-8.73µg/L   and  0.88-5.3µg/L respectively,   which   indicates   that   chloramination   was   better   in   reducing   the conventional  disinfection   by-products  than   chlorination,  but  it   can  increase   the concentration of HANs significantly.
    4、The three dimensional fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectra was used to characterize the NOM in raw water. The results showed that the main substance of NOM  were humic  acids and  fulvic acids  in raw  water. And  they probably  be an biological origin.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/36775
Appears in Collections:环境水质学国家重点实验室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
宝露尔. 三类卤代消毒副产物的分布特征及生成影响因素初探[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2016.
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