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题名: 露水河林业局森林多目标经营评价及规划
作者: 曹慧明
学位类别: 博士后
答辩日期: 2016-09
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 吴钢 ; 邓红兵
关键词: 露水河林业局 ; Lushui River Forestry Bureau ; 多目标经营 ; multi-target management ; 健康评价 ; health evaluation ; 空间规划 ; spatial planning
其他题名: Study on forest multi-target evaluation and planning of Lushuihe Forestry Bureau
学位专业: 环境科学
中文摘要:     森林具有生态、经济和社会等多种功能。随着可持续发展理论和研究的不断深化,单纯以生产木材为经营目标的传统经营方式已经不适应当前社会经济可持续发展的需要,发挥森林在涵养水源、保育土壤、减缓气候变暖、改善空气质量、维持生物多样性等多种非木材生产功能已成为衡量森林可持续经营的重要因素。只有采取森林多目标经营才能不断增加森林资源数量,提高森林资源质量,优化森林资源结构,建立和培育稳定高效的森林生态系统,才能实现和提升森林的三大功能,发挥森林的三大效益,不断满足经济社会发展对林业的多种需求,为发展现代林业、建设生态文明、促进科学发展提供基础保障。本研究以长白山地区的露水河林业局为研究对象,针对其森林资源特点及经营需求,在森林景观健康评价和效益评估的基础上,进行森林多目标经营的区划和规划。结果表明:
    1. 无论是在森林小班水平上还是在森林景观斑块水平上较不健康和不健康的比例很大,急需进行可持续经营。在小班尺度上,露水河林业局森林经营小班处于中等健康和较不健康的最多,面积比例分别为35.32%、35.67%(2003 年)和31.30%、40.26%(2010 年)。在
空间上看,健康状况转好的区域主要集中在东升、清水河、红光等林场,健康状况转差的林分主要集中在黎明、四湖和西林河等林场;在景观尺度上,较不健康和不健康的比例仍然很大,不健康的原因主要是:景观的平均斑块面积、边缘密度都较小,景观多样性指数值均显
著偏低。
    2. 露水河林业局森林多目标效益的比例为经济效益33.24%,生露水河林业局森林多目标经营评价及规划态效益59.97%,社会效益6.79%,每公顷森林多目标经营效益为0.79万元,其中经济效益、生态效益和社会效益分别为0.26 万元/公顷、0.47 万元/公顷和0.05 万元/公顷。
    3. 根据露水河林业局森林资源特点和森林经营需求,结合相关研究,确定露水河林业局多目标经营的主要功能为:水源涵养、水土保持、护路游憩以及木材生产。通过构建指标体系进行多目标经营主导功能评价,并根据主导功能对原有的森林分布进行调整。与林场原森
林功能分布相比,原有的部分小班被分别调整不同的功能。其中护路游憩功能的小班数量由497 个调整为629 个,小班面积由9827.23 hm2变化为10962.57 hm2。木材生产功能的小班数量由5261个调整为4577个,面积由82296.85 hm2 变化为71492.90 hm2。水土保持功能的小班数量由139个调整为477个,面积由3825.31 hm2变化为10800.79 hm2。水源涵养功能的小班数量由357 个调整为581 个,面积由8268.87 hm2变化为10970.64 hm2。
    4. 选取露水河林业局红光林场,其森林多目标主要确定为经济目标、生态目标和社会目标,其中经济目标主要通过木材生产来实现;生态目标主要通过优先发展符合群落演替方向的林型和禁伐区来实现;社会目标主要通过碳贮增量来实现。采用线性规划决策模型,制
定约束条件,对红光林场5 个分期进行多目标规划决策,并依据森林多目标经营决策的森林采伐蓄积量结果,结合森林多目标经营区划通过采伐不适宜立地条件的乡土或非乡土树种实现了森林多目标经营空间规划,制作了以小班为单元的红光林场森林多目标经营空间规划图,形成了水源涵养林成片、水土保持林斑块状分布和观赏游憩林呈线状分布特点的空间格局。
英文摘要:     function and social function. With continuous deepening of the theory and research of sustainable development, the business pattern which purely depends on wood production cannot satisfy the need of sustainable development. Besides wood production, fully develop the functions of forest such as water and soil conservation, climate warming mitigation, air
quality improvement and biodiversity maintenance has become an important factor to manage the forest sustainability. Only by applying multi-target business pattern on forest, can the amount of the forest resource increase continuously. Meanwhile, three major functions of the forest can be promoted and its benefits can be created by further improving
the quality of forest resource, optimizing the forest structure and establishing and cultivating stable and effective forest ecosystem. Only in this way they can satisfy the multiple needs of social and economical development on forestry, and provide the basis for modern forestry
development, ecological civilization construction and scientific development. In this paper, Lushui River Forestry Bureau in Changbai Mountain area was selected to programme the multi-target business pattern of forest on the basis of forest landscape and benefits evaluation based on its forest resource features and management needs. The results showed that:
    1) The relatively unhealthy or unhealthy forest accounted for a large proportion both on forest age class level and landscape level in 2003 and 2010, and in urgent need of sustainable management. At forest age class scale, the medium health or relatively unhealthy area in Lushui Forestry Bureau accounted for 35.32%, 35.67% and 31.30% and 40.26% in 2003  Dongsheng, Qingshui River and Hongguang forest farm, unhealthy region
mainly located in Liming, Sihu and Xilin River forest farm;At landscape scale,the proportion of relatively unhealthy and unhealthy forest was still very high, the main reasons for the unhealthy forest were: low value of the average patchy area in landscape, low value of the marginal density and low value of landscape diversity index.
    2) Multi-target benefit of Lushui River Bureau accounted for 33.24% of the economic benefit, 59.97% of the social benefit and 6.79% of the social benefit, the multi-target management benefit per hectare of forest was 7,900 yuan, among which, the economical benefit, ecological benefit and social benefit were 2,600 yuan per hectare, 4,700 yuan per hectare and 500 yuan per hectare, respectively.
3) According to the property of the forest resource and business need of Lushui River Forestry Bureau, and combined with relevant regulations, the main functions of the multi-target management of Lushui River Forestry Bureau were determined as: water source conservation, water and soil conservation, road protection and entertainment and wood production. The assessment of the main function of multi-target management was conducted by establishing the index system, and the distribution of the forest was adjusted according to its dominant function. Compared with the function distribution of the original forest, the original small class was adjusted to different function. Among which, the number of the small class with the function of road protection and entertainment was adjusted from
497 to 629, the area of which was adjusted from 9827.23 hm2 to 10962.57 hm2. The number of small class with the function of wood production was adjusted from 5261 to 4577, the area of which adjusted from 82296.85 hm2 to 71492.90 hm2. The small class with the function of water and soil conservation adjusted from 139 to 477, the area of which adjusted from 3825.31 hm2 to 10800.79 hm2. The number of small class with the function of water source conservation adjusted from 357 to 581, the area of which adjusted from 8268.87 hm2 to 10970.64 hm2。
    4) The Hongguang forest farm of Lushui River Forestry Bureau was selected, the multi-target of the forest was determined as economic target, ecological target and social target, among which, the economical target can be achieved by wood production; the ecological target can be achieved by giving the priority to the development of trees accord with the community succession and set up emergent district; the social target can be achieved by increasing amount carbon storage. To programme the multi-target of five stages in Hongguang forest farm, the linear planning decision-making model was applied, and the constraint conditions was set. Meanwhile,according to the results of forest harvest volume by multi-target management decision, the spatial planning was achieved by harvesting the local or extoxic trees which unsuitable to grow in this region. Also, the spatial planning figure was made by multi-target management of the forest in Hongguang forest farm under the unit of small class, and formed spatial distribution pattern of sheet distributed forest which conserved the water source, patchy distributed forest which conserved the water and soil, and linear distributed forest which entertained the public.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/36777
Appears in Collections:城市与区域生态国家重点实验室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
曹慧明. 露水河林业局森林多目标经营评价及规划[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2016.
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