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题名: 厌氧氨氧化启动及种泥选择的主要影响因素研究
作者: 池勇志
学位类别: 博士后
答辩日期: 2016-10
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 杨敏 ; 张昱
关键词: 厌氧氨氧化 ; anaerobic ammonium oxidation ; 反应器启动 ; reactor startup ; 影响因素 ; influencing factors ; 活性污泥 ; activated sludge ; 上流式厌氧污泥床反 应器 ; upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor
其他题名: Key parameters in selecting seed sludge source for anammox process startup
学位专业: 环境工程
中文摘要:     厌氧氨氧化(anaerobic ammonium oxidation,ANAMMOX)工艺具有经济高效的特点,通过与短程硝化工艺组合使用,非常适于处理低碳氮比的高浓度氨氮废水。在实际采用厌氧氨氧化工艺时, 由于厌氧氨氧化菌( anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacterium ,AnAOB)生长缓慢,导致启动时间耗时较长。因此如何选择合适的种泥加快厌氧氨氧化启动是一件有意义的工作。尽管富集后的AnAOB 可加快厌氧氨氧化反应器启动,但是在很多情况下适宜的厌氧氨氧化种泥还存在数量不足和获取不方便的问题。因此针对AnAOB 生长缓慢的问题,选择适宜的厌氧氨氧化种泥是启动厌氧氨氧化反应器的关键。为此,本文在研究了污水处理厂活性污泥中AnAOB 丰度的主要影响因素基础上,分别采用批式反应器和连续流反应器研究了厌氧氨氧化启动,主要研究内容分述如下。
(1)活性污泥中AnAOB 丰度影响因素的研究。六种活性污泥分别来自三座城市污水处理厂、三座工业废水处理厂。城市污水处理厂包括A/A/O 工艺、A/A/O-MBR 工艺和氧化沟工艺。工业废水处理厂包括处理垃圾渗滤液的A/O-MBR工艺,处理焦化废水的A/O 工艺和制药废水的A/O 工艺。采用定量PCR 技术对样品中AnAOB 丰度进行了测试。研究结果表明:六种活性污泥中均含AnAOB,处理工业废水活性泥中AnAOB 丰度(8.4×102 - 4.4×104 hzsB gene copies·mg(VSS)-1)> 处理城市污水活性污泥中AnAOB 丰度( 3.9×102-6.5×102 hzsB gene copies·mg(VSS)-1),活性污泥中AnAOB 丰度对数值与进水氨氮浓度和污水处理厂污水处理系统泥龄呈显著正相关。
(2)批式厌氧氨氧化反应器启动研究。以上述六种活性污泥为种泥,人工配水作为基质,采用有效容积为400 ml 的有机玻璃反应器,进行了为期175 d 的批式厌氧氨氧化启动。分子生物学和活性试验表明六种种泥均可启动厌氧氨氧化反应器。其中采用工业废水污泥作为种泥的反应器启动时间(18-33 d)小于采用生活污水污泥作为种泥的反应器启动时间(59-86 d )。厌氧氨氧化反应器启动时间与种泥中AnAOB 丰度呈显著负相关。
    对Miseq 测序结果的分析表明,种泥来自处理城市污水和焦化废水活性污泥的反应器富集污泥中的操作分类单元(Operational Units,OTUs)数小于种泥中的OUT 数,种泥来自处理垃圾渗滤液和制药废水活性污泥的反应器富集污泥中的OUT 数大于种泥中的OUT 数,此外得到六种富集污泥在属水平上的11 种共有核心微生物(相对丰度< 0.1%)。ANAMMOX 16S rRNA 基因克隆文库表明,富集污泥中的AnAOB 在属水平上的种类数<种泥中的AnAOB 在属水平上的种类数,富集污泥中Brocadia 属为AnAOB 的优势属。
(3)连续流厌氧氨氧化反应器启动研究。分别以处理垃圾渗滤液的A/O-MBR回流污泥和处理制药废水的A/O 工艺回流污泥为种泥,人工配水作为基质,采用有效容积为2 L 的上流式厌氧污泥床反应器,进行了为期273 d 的连续流厌氧氨氧化反应器启动。两个反应器在启动11 d 后均表现出厌氧氨氧化活性。ANAMMOX16S rRNA 基因克隆文库表明,富集污泥中的AnAOB 在属水平上的种类数<种泥中的AnAOB 在属水平上的种类数,富集污泥中Kuenenia 属为AnAOB 的优势属。将来在选择种泥启动厌氧氨氧化反应器时,处理高氨氮工业废水的活性污泥由于AnAOB 丰度高,可缩短启动时间,更适合作为种泥。
英文摘要:     The anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) process is regarded as a cost-effective and environment-friendly way to treat wastewater containing high concentrations of ammonium. Because of the relatively slow growth rates of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AnAOB), finding suitable seed sludge sources is a challenge for the startup of the ANAMMOX process. Though enriched anammox biomass has been found to be suitable seed sludge for a quick startup, anammox seeds are still insufficient and not readily available in most cases. So finding suitable seed sludge sources is a key for the startup of the anammox process considering the relatively slow growth rates of AnAOB. In this study, the relationship between influencing factors and AnAOB abundance in activated sludge was investigated firstly. Then batch reactors and continuous flow reactors were used to startup ANAMMOX, respectively. The main contents are as follows:
   (1) Influencing factors of AnAOB abundance in activated sludge.
    Six kinds of activated sludge were collected from three full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), and two full-scale and one pilot-scale industrial WWTPs. The three municipal WWTPs included an anaerobic/anoxic/oxic activated sludge process (sludge code: AAO-M), a anaerobic/anoxic/oxic membrane bio-reactor (sludge code: MBR-M) and an oxidation ditch (sludge code: OD-M), respectively. The industrial WWTPs were used for the treatment of landfill leachate (sludge code: MBR-L), coking wastewater (sludge code: AO-C), and antibiotic production wastewater (sludge code: AO-A). The AnAOB abundances of the six seed sludge types were determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The results showed that AnAOB existed in all of the samples. The AnAOB abundance in activated sludge treating municipal wastewater (8.4×102 - 4.4×104 hzsB gene copies·mg(VSS)-1)waslower than that of activated sludge treating industrial wastewater (3.9×102-6.5×102 hzsB gene copies·mg(VSS)-1). The influent ammonium concentration and SRT were significantly and positively correlated with the logarithm of AnAOB abundance in
activated sludge.
   (2) Batch reactors to startup ANAMMOX.
    Six activated sludge sources were used as inocula, the effective volume of 400 ml of plexiglass reactors were used to startup batch ANAMMOX reactors for 175 d fed with synthetic substrate. The results of molecular analyses and activity test showed that
all of the six seed sludge types could be used to startup ANAMMOX reactors. The reactors inoculated with industrial WWTPs sludge exhibited shorter startup time (18-33 d) than municipal one (59-86 d). The required startup time for detectable ANAMMOX activity was significantly and negatively correlated with the initial AnAOB abundances in the sludge. The results of Miseq sequencing showed, for reactors inoculated with activated sludge resources to treat municipal wastewater or coking wastewater, the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) number in enriched sludge was higher than that in seed sludge. For reactors inoculated with activated sludge resources to treat landfill leachate or antibiotic wastewater, the OTUs number in enriched sludge was lower than that in seed sludge. In six enriched sludge types, 11 phylotypies (genus level, relative abundance < 0.1%) were found as common core bacteria. The results of ANAMMOX 16S rRNA gene library showed that the number of AnAOB genera in enriched sludge was lower than that of seed sludge, and the dominant AnAOB genera in enriched sludge was Brocadia genus.
    (3) Continuous flow reactors to startup ANAMMOX.
    Activated sludge sources from A/O-MBR to treat landfill leachate and A/O process to treat pharmaceutical wastewater were used as inocula, respectively. The upflow sludge blanket reactors (effective volume of 2L) were used to startup continuous flow ANAMMOX reactors for 273 d fed with synthetic substrate. On day 11, all of the two reactors showed ANAMMOX activity. The results of ANAMMOX 16S rRNA gene library showed the number of AnAOB genera in enriched sludge was lower than that of seed sludge, and the dominant genera in enriched sludge was Kuenenia genus. As a candidate for seed sludge to startup ANAMMOX reactor, the activated sludge treating ammonium rich industrial wastewater has high AnAOB abundance and could reduce startup time, so it could be used as a favorable seed sludge sources.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/36784
Appears in Collections:环境水质学国家重点实验室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
池勇志. 厌氧氨氧化启动及种泥选择的主要影响因素研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2016.
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