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题名: 生物滤池去除污泥干化尾气中恶臭物质的研究
作者: 丁文杰
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2016-05
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 刘俊新 ; 李琳
关键词: 污泥干化,臭味气体,恶臭评价,生物滤池 ; Sludge drying, odor gas, odor pollution evaluation, biofilter
其他题名: Study on removal of odor pollutants contained in sludge drying exhaust by biofilter
学位专业: 环境工程
中文摘要:      污水处理厂污泥的处理处置是当前急需解决的问题,利用水泥窑协同处置污泥是一条有效的途径。但污泥干化过程有恶臭尾气产生,对周围环境和人体身体健康造成影响。为此,本论文开展了污泥干化尾气特征调查和生物滤池去除恶臭物质的性能研究及工程应用。主要研究内容和结果如下:
     以 YB水泥厂和BJ水泥厂2座水泥厂的协同处置污泥系统为研究对象,监测和分析了污泥直接干化和间接干化2种工艺的尾气成分与释放特征。结果表明,臭气浓度与干化尾气中的含硫物质和挥发性有机物的排放水平正相关,但直接干化与间接干化尾气中含硫物质的成分存在明显的差异。直接干化尾气中主要含硫物质是二氧化硫(SO2),浓度为 150-820 ppm,其它含硫物质浓度均很低或未检出,而间接干化尾气中含硫物质主要是硫化氢(H2S)、甲硫醇和甲硫醚,浓度分别为46~120 ppm、30~47 ppm和大于  60 ppm。其原因可能是直接干化温度远高于间接干化温度,污泥中含硫等物质在较高温度下受热氧化分解,生成硫酸根或 SO2。SO2主要来自水泥窑尾气,在与污泥接触后进入污泥干化尾气。直接干化和间接干化尾气中挥发性有机物的主要组分是一致的,主要为苯系物和低分子的有机酸。此外,间接干化尾气中还存在较高浓度的氨(>50 ppm)。
      基于目前国内外恶臭污染相关规定,综合考虑污泥干化产生的尾气中物质浓度、嗅阈值、阈限值、气味安全级别以及饱和蒸汽压,通过指标权重评分方法筛选出污泥干化产生尾气中的主要恶臭污染物。以恶臭污染潜力为评价目标,风险指标和臭气排放强度为评价指标,通过韦伯-费希纳定律构建污泥干化产生尾气的恶臭污染潜力分级评价模型,形成适合污泥干化产生尾气的恶臭污染潜力分级评价方法。利用本评价方法,计算出污泥直接干化产生的恶臭气体的潜在污染能力值为2.89,为污染级别;污泥间接干化产生的恶臭气体的潜在污染能力值为 3.21,为明显污染级别。无论是直接干化还是间接干化,若将污泥干化尾气直接排放,将会对周围环境(2~4 km)和人体的身体健康造成严重影响。
      以污泥直接干化尾气中的主要恶臭物质 SO2和二甲苯为目标污染物,通过对高效降解菌的培养驯化,以及生物载体填料的筛选,构建出高效生物系统,研发出双层填料生物滤池装置,使维持生物系统湿度的液体喷淋周期延长到3~5天喷淋1次,可有效节省能耗和减少运行管理工作量。380天的实验室小型实验结果表明,对 SO2的去除率大于  80%;当进气中二氧化硫和二甲苯共存时,二甲苯基本可以全部去除。
      在实验室研究成果的基础上,在广州建设了处理能力为 3000Nm3/h的污泥直接干化尾气处理工程装置:多层生物滤池。4个月的运行结果表明,达到稳定运行时,污泥干化尾气中的SO2、TVOCs和氨的去除率分别达到100%、87.01%及93.61%,对臭气浓度的去除率也达到91.04%。生物群落结构分析表明,生物滤池运行一定时间后,形成稳定的生物系统,主要功能种群为嗜热菌,优势种群为脱硫菌(Paenibacillus sp.)、脱氮菌(Chelatococcus sp)以及有机物降解菌(Bacillus sp.、Clostridium thermosuccinogenes、Pseudoxanthomonas sp.、Geobacillus debilis)。
英文摘要:     Disposal of sewage treatment plant sludge is an urgent      problem that needs to be  solved  currently.  Co-processing   sludge  by  using  high-temperature   cement  kiln  can realize the harmless disposal and energy recycling.     However, in the process of   sludge  drying,  the  decomposition  of  organic  matter  in  sludge  would  release  volatile  organic compounds  (VOCs)  and  odor  pollutants,  which  may  cause  odor  pollution  and  bring harmful   impact   on   the   surrounding   environment   and   human   health.   Therefore, characteristics of the  sludge drying exhaust, the performance   of the  biofilter to remove odor substances and  engineering application of the   biofilter were studied in this   paper, and the main contents and results of this paper are as follows:
    Taking co-processing sludge system of YB cement factory and BJ cement factory as the research objects, the composition and emission characteristic of exhaust released from sludge direct and indirect  drying was surveyed and analyzed. Results showed that odor concentration was related to the level of VOCs and sulfur-contained compounds in
the   sludge    drying   exhaust.   There    was   obvious   difference    in   composition   of sulfur-contained compounds  between  sludge  direct  drying  exhaust and  sludge indirect drying   exhaust.  Concentration   of   SO2   150-820  ppm   and   concentration  of   other sulfur-contained compounds was low. While in the sludge indirect drying exhaust, the primarily  sulfur-contained  compounds  were  hydrogen  sulfide,  methyl  mercaptan  and sulfide. Concentration  of hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan and   sulfide were 46-120 ppm, 30-47 ppm and greater than 60 ppm, respectively. Temperature of sludge drying was high and the   sulfur-contained  substances in the   sludge  were  oxidized to SO42-  or SO2. Most of the SO2    was from the cement kiln   tail gas and mixed in the exhaust of sludge direct drying. Composition of TVOCs in the sludge exhaust    was similar and  the main  ingredients  were  BTEX  and  VFA.  In  addition,  high  concentration  of  ammonia (>50 ppm) was detected in the sludge indirect drying process.
     The  main  odor   pollutants  were  selected  by   multi-index  integrated  assessment method.  The  concentration,  olfactory  threshold,  threshold  limit  value,  smell  security level and saturated vapor pressure were considered as indexes based on the domestic and foreign related regulations. Taking the pollution potential as the evaluation target, and the  risk  index  and  odor  emission  intensity  as  evaluation  indexes,  the  odor  pollution potential   rated   evaluation   model   of   the   pollutants   was   built   according   to   the Weber–Fechner  law.  The  aim  of  the  present  study  is  to  form  the  rating  evaluation method  of  odor  potential  pollution  capacity  which  is  suitable  for  the  sludge  drying process. According to the evaluation method, the odor potential pollution capacity value of sludge direct drying was 2.89, belonging to the pollution level, which could affect the human health and environment (2~4 km) if the exhaust emitted untreated. Odor potential pollution  capacity   value  in   sludge  indirectdrying   was  3.21,   belonging  to   obvious pollution level, and showed greater influence on the human body and surroundings than sludge direct drying.
    Biofilter  was  constructed  in the  lab to  dispose  the typical  odor  pollutants in  the sludge  direct drying  exhaust: SO2  and  xylene.  A two-layer  packing  materials  biofilter was  set  up  after  cultivation  of  high  efficient  degradation  bacteria  and  screening  of biofilter  packing  materials.  The   system  can  maintain   the  humidity  of  the   packing materials  and  extendthe  spray  cycle  to  3-5  days,  which  can  save  energy,  reduce  the workload of operation and  manage easily. After operation period of 390 days, removal efficiency of SO2 in the biofilter could reach up   more than 80%. Removal efficiency  of xylene could reach 100%   when co-processing SO2   and  xylene in the biofilter. On the basis  of  research  results  in  the  lab,  multi-layer  biofilter  tower  with  capacity  of  3000 Nm3/h  was  constructed  to  dispose  the  sludge  direct  drying  exhaust.  After  4  months’ operation, removal efficiency   of SO2, TVOC, ammonia and odor in the sludge drying exhaust could reach 100%, 87.01%, 93.61% and 91.04%, respectively. After a period of operation  time,  stable  biological  systems  were  formed  in  the  demonstration  project biofilter. Most of the functional microbial populations in the biofilter were thermophiles, and dominant populations were desulfurizing bacteria (Paenibacillus sp.), denitrification bacteria (Chelatococcus.sp) and   VOCs  degradation  bacteria (Bacillus sp.,  Clostridium thermosuccinogenes, Pseudoxanthomonas sp., and Geobacillus debilis).

 
 


内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/36786
Appears in Collections:水污染控制技术研究室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
丁文杰. 生物滤池去除污泥干化尾气中恶臭物质的研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2016.
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