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题名: 输水工程建设对沿线区域环境的影响 及管理对策研究
作者: 董孟婷
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2016-05
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 吴钢 ; 严岩
关键词: 南水北调,输水管道,土地利用,植被覆盖,水土流失 ; the South-North Water Transfer Project ; water transfer project ; vegetation coverage ; land use ; soil erosion
其他题名: Effects of Water Transfer Project Construction on Regional Ecological Environment and Countermeasures
学位专业: 环境经济与环境管理
中文摘要:        水资源紧缺已经成为全球性的环境问题,是当前人类面临最严重的资源危机。跨流域输水工程是解决水资源时空分布不均的最科学、最有效的途径之一。但是,调水工程的建设会不可避免的对所经区域生态环境带来影响,例如,扰动地表土层、破坏植被以及改变沿线土地利用类型及景观等。改革开放以来,中国实施了多项跨流域调水工程,其中,南水北调工程是缓解中国北方水资源严重短缺、优化配置水资源的重大战略性工程。本文选取南水北调中线一期工程河北省易县段作为研究对象,运用对比分析研究了土地利用和植被景观的变化,采用RUSLE 模型计算分析了水土流失的变化情况,选取中国陆地生态系统服务单位面积服务价值表计算了生态系统服务价值的变化。本文定量分析了输水管道建设对沿线区域环境的影响范围和强度,最后提出了相应的管理对策,以期为输水管道建设工程对沿线区域环境影响的定量化研究提供数据参考。本文的主要结论如下:
     (1)不同建设时期(施工建设前,施工期和施工建设后)输水管道工程对沿线区域土地利用方式均存在一定影响,施工期的影响最为明显。在施工期,草地和耕地的面积随着工程的开展持续减小,新增建设用地面积共计有83%由耕地转变而来。工程建设后期由于复垦和植被恢复,部分建设用地转化为耕地、林地、水域和草地。
    (2)输水管道工程建设对沿线区域的景观格局产生了明显的影响,主要的影响区域为施工作业带以外两侧100 m 以内范围,影响强度随着距离的增加而降低。施工建设后期研究区内整体景观复杂程度提高、破碎化程度加剧,景观的空间异质性增加,景观系统内能量和物质的迁移及流动受到了较大的阻力,景观内部不同斑块类型之间的连通性降低,原有较少的景观类型数量增加,原有优势类型所占面积比重降低,景观多样性提高。
    (3)对比管道工程建设不同时期沿线区域植被覆盖度的变化显示,研究区植被覆盖度出现了先减少后增加的变化趋势,管道工程施工建设期对沿线生态环境系统的影响范围主要在施工作业带两侧100 m 以内,在这个区域以外,影响强度大幅降低。
    (4)对比管道工程建设施工前后研究区水土流失的变化情况显示:植物覆盖度是影响研究区水土流失强度的一个重要因素。施工建设后相比施工建设前水土流失强度增大,缓坡、中等斜坡以及斜坡区域中度及以上侵蚀等级的土地面积大幅增加。
    (5)当输水管道工程穿越农田生态系统时,在管道施工作业带与农田的交界处、距离施工作业带20 m 处和距离施工作业带40 m 处这三个监测点,土壤含水量出现明显扰动;在距离施工作业带两侧100 m 范围之外,没有明显扰动。土壤pH 值、有机质含量等指标有相似结果。当输水管道工程穿越森林生态系统时,土壤含水量在距离施工作业带两侧100 m 以内,发生了较为剧烈的扰动,其他土壤要素扰动均不明显。
      基于研究结果,提出了输水管道建设工程施工期严格执行水土保持措施,对于重要的生态功能区,设置人为恢复区;施工建设后可以采取适当灌溉,播撒本地植物种子等加快植被恢复措施的对策建议。
英文摘要:       Water scarcity is a global concern; it is now the most severe resource crisis facing the world. Inter-basin water transfer project is the most effective way to ease the problem of inequitable water allocation, but, the construction of inter-basin water transfer project inevitably affects the eco-environment of areas that it passes through, brings ecological impacts, such as, topsoil disturbance, land use and landscape pattern alteration, and vegetation destruction. Since the Chinese Economic Reform and Opening Up, many inter-basin water transfer projects were designed and constructed, the South-North Water Transfer Project is the largest of its kind undertaken in the world; it is a multi-decade infrastructure mega-project. In this study, Yi County, located in the area of the Middle Route of South-North Water Transfer Project in Hebei Province is selected as the object of study. Geographic Information System (GIS) was used for comparative analysis of the land use, landscape pattern and vegetation coverage changes, the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model was used to describe soil erosion processes, and the ecosystem services value unit area of Chinese terrestrial ecosystem table was used as a basis to estimate the changes of the ecological assets value. The extent of disturbance caused by the construction of the water transfer project was quantitatively analyzed, and related
countermeasures were provided for management. The results showed that:
    (1) The land use varied the most in construction period among all three different construction stages (pre-construction period, construction period, and post-construction period). Grassland and arable land decreased greatly, 83% proportion of the construction land was transformed from arable land. Since there are reclamation and restoration done afterward the construction, part of the construction land transformed into arable land, woodland, water and grassland.
    (2) The construction of the water transfer project affects the landscape pattern strongly, the scope of main influence was the construction area within the range of 100 m, beyond which, the strength of ecological impact reduced as the distance increase. Landscape pattern got complex and showed a large increase of fragmentation, heterogeneity and reduction of connectedness. Grassland was dominant in the landscape pattern, tis degree of dominance decreased, the integrity of the landscape dropped off.
     (3) The construction of the water transfer project had significant effects on vegetation coverage, over three periods of study, showing an increasing trend after first being reduced. The scope of main influence was the construction area within the range of 100 m; beyond which, the strength of ecological impact was greatly reduced.
    (4) Vegetation is an important factor affecting the strength of Yi County’s soil erosion. Compared with year 2000 (pre-construction period), there are much more areas by slope classes ranging from gentle to steep were estimated to be affected by a moderate to high level soil erosion in the year of 2013 (post-construction period).
    (5) Soil moisture showed significant disturbances at three observation points,namely, the junction of the construction area and the farmland, 20 m away from the construction area, and 40 m away from the construction area. No obvious disturbance appears 100m away from the construction area, other soil factors showed little disturbance.
    Based on the research results, countermeasures were suggested. Water and soil conservation rules should be strictly followed while constructing, some important eco-function area need to get human-induced recovery; and vegetation coverage restorations, such as, sowing the seeds of native plants, should be pay attention to after the construction.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/36787
Appears in Collections:城市与区域生态国家重点实验室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
董孟婷. 输水工程建设对沿线区域环境的影响 及管理对策研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2016.
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