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题名: 履行斯德哥尔摩公约成效评估全球持久性有机污染物监测进展
作者: 董姝君
学位类别: 博士后
答辩日期: 2016-05
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 欧阳志云 ; 郑明辉
关键词: 持久性有机污染物,大气,水体,母乳,监测计划,变化趋势 ; POPs, Air, Water, Human milk, Monitoring program, Temporal trend
学位专业: 生态学
中文摘要:     持久性有机污染物(POPs)普遍存在于大气、生物、水体、沉积物、土壤等环境介质中,能够通过多种途径进行区域甚至全球范围的迁移分配,并能够通过食物链蓄积,进而对生态环境以及人体健康造成威胁。为了掌握POPs 在环境介质中的污染水平,许多国家和区域开展了一系列的POPs 监测活动,国际上一些影响重大的区域及跨区域POPs 监测计划多年来积累了大量的POPs 监测数据。全球POPs 监测计划(GMP)是履约《关于持久性有机污染物的斯德哥尔摩公约》成效评估的重要组成部分,它的实施汇集了全球多个国家和区域有关环境介质以及人体组织中POPs 监测数据。本文以GMP 数据库国家和区域POPs 监测数据基础,结合现有文献POPs 监测的相关报道,对大气、水体和母乳中POPs 监测数据进行汇总和分析,对比考察了不同国家和区域大气、水体和母乳中POPs含量、分布及其变化趋势,有助于了解全球大气、水体和母乳中POPs 的监测现状及其变化趋势。
    对大气、水体和母乳中POPs 分布特征和变化趋势归纳总结如下:
      1. 大气中大范围POPs 监测计划主要包括全球大气被动采样监测网(GAPS)、POPs 监测网络模型(MONET)、高山地区POPs 监测网(MONARPOP)、北极圈监测与评估项目(AMAP)、欧洲监测与评估项目(EMEP)、东亚POPs 监测计划、北美五大湖大气综合沉降网(IADN)等项目。大气中含量较高的POPs 包括多氯联苯(PCBs)、滴滴涕(DDT)、多氯代二苯并-对-二恶英(PCDDs)、多氯代二苯并呋喃(PCDFs)和六六六(HCHs);大气中艾氏剂、氯丹、灭蚁灵、异狄氏剂含量处于较低水平。就大气中POPs 变化趋势而言,北美五大湖地区监测点大气中艾氏剂、氯丹、DDT、狄氏剂、HCB、灭蚁灵、HCHs、七氯含量呈显著下降趋势;北极圈监测点大气中氯丹、DDT、HCB、HCHs 含量呈显著下降趋势;欧洲少数监测点大气中DDT、HCHs 含量呈显著下降趋势。中欧地区捷克监
测点大气中HCB 含量呈显著上升趋势;北美五大湖地区3 个监测点大气中PBDEs 含量呈显著上升趋势。其他国家和区域大气中POPs 含量变化趋势不显著或无法获得。
      2. 水体中POPs 的监测主要针对PFOS。目前有关水体中PFOS 的长期连续监测计划较少,水体中PFOS 变化趋势尚无法获得。GMP 数据库水体中PFOS 数据主要来自水库、河流/湖泊、沿海和公海。文献调研表明,受人类活动影响较大的河流、湖泊和近海中PFOS 含量高于公海,其中河流中PFOS 含量最高。受人类活动影响较多的城市以及工业区水体中PFOS 具有较高的含量,水体中PFOS主要来自污水的排放。北大西洋海域PFOS 具有较高含量,并能够随洋流迁移到其他区域。
      3. 母乳中POPs 监测计划以世界卫生组织(WHO)组织开展的全球母乳中POPs 监测持续时间最长,涉及范围最广。1987 年至今,WHO 主持开展了5 轮母乳中POPs 监测。最初两轮监测的目标物仅包括二恶英类物质(PCDD/Fs 和类二恶英多氯联苯(dl-PCBs)),第三轮起增加了其他POPs。不同国家人群母乳中POPs 含量差异较大。母乳中DDT 及其代谢产物和β-HCH 具有较高含量,其次为PCDD/Fs 和PCBs。母乳中艾氏剂、氯丹、异狄氏剂、七氯、灭蚁灵含量较低。就二恶英类物质而言,除一些贫困国家因特殊习俗如食用粘土作为药物而导致较高二恶英类物质机体负荷水平外,经济发达、工业化水平高的国家和区域的母乳中通常含有较高水平的二恶英类物质,欧美国家母乳中二恶英类物质含量高于南半球国家。
英文摘要:     Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are highly toxic compounds that are found widely
in environmental media, including in air, water, sediment, soil, and organisms. POPs
can be transported at the regional and global scales. POPs can be accumulated through
the food chain and threaten environmental and human health. Several countries and
international organizations have been conducting POP monitoring programs. Large
amounts of POP monitoring data have been accumulated in cross-regional POP
monitoring projects over the past few years. The “Global Monitoring Plan” (GMP) for
POPs, developed by the United Nations Environment Programme, provides a
harmonized organizational framework for the collection of comparable POP monitoring data in all regions to allow changes in POP concentrations over time to be identified and regional and global environmental transport of POPs to be studied. Long-term POPs monitoring data can provide important information that can be used to assess the effectiveness of measures that have been taken to decrease the amounts of POPs emitted. The GMP “data warehouse” includes monitoring data for POPs in air, water, and human milk from national and regional POP monitoring programs. In this work, monitoring data for POPs in air, water, and human milk from the GMP data warehouse and scientific literature are summarized. POP concentrations in air, water, and human milk from different countries are analyzed and compared, and temporal trends in POP concentrations are investigated. A general description of POP concentrations and temporal trends in the environment are presented.
     The characteristics of POP concentrations and temporal trends in air, water, and human
milk are summarized below.
    1. The programs that provided ambient air monitoring data were the “Global Atmospheric Passive Sampling” program, the “Model Network” program, the “Monitoring Network in the Alpine Region for Persistent Organic Pollutants” program,the “Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme”, the “European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme”, the “Background Air Monitoring of Persistent Organic Pollutants in East Asian Countries” program, the “Integrated Atmospheric Deposition Network” program, and some national implementation plans. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), polychlorinated dibenzo-pdioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) , hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), were found at higher concentrations than other POPs in ambient air. Aldrin, chlordane, mirex and dieldrin in ambient air are found at
relatively low concentrations. Aldrin, chlordane, DDT, dieldrin, heptachlor, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), HCHs, and mirex concentrations in ambient air in the North
American Great Lakes have been found to be decreasing significantly over time.
Concentrations of chlordane, DDT, HCB, and HCHs in ambient air at Arctic sites have
also been found to be decreasing significantly over time, as are concentrations of DDT
and HCHs in ambient air at some monitoring sites in Europe. However, HCB concentrations in ambient air in the Czech Republic are increasing significantly over time. PBDE concentrations in ambient air at three of the five North American Great Lakes sites have been found to be increasing significantly over time. Temporal trends in POP concentrations in ambient air in other countries and regions have not been found to follow significant temporal trends, or insufficient data are available to assess the temporal trends.
    2. The monitoring of POPs in water is currently mainly focused on PFOS. Water was
not previously included in the GMP. Few programs in which PFOS concentrations in water have been monitored have been performed. Concentrations of PFOS and related chemicals in lakes, reservoirs, rivers, and oceans (mainly at background sites) are included in the GMP data warehouse. The monitoring data for PFOS in water used in the work presented here came mainly from the scientific literature. PFOS concentrations are somewhat higher in rivers than in estuaries, lakes, and oceans. PFOS concentrations in the open ocean are lower than PFOS concentrations in other water bodies. PFOS concentrations are higher in water bodies in industrialized areas than in water bodies in non-industrialized areas, possibly because PFOS may enter water bodies in wastewater and tributaries. PFOS in the oceans may be transported around the world in ocean currents. No temporal trends in PFOS concentrations in water are currently available.
    3. The only global monitoring program of POPs in human milk used in the study was
conducted by the World Health Organization (WHO) . The aim of the WHO program was to provide information on baseline human exposure to POPs and on temporal trends. The WHO has coordinated five surveys of POPs in human milk since 1987. The first two WHO surveys were performed mainly in Europe and North America, and were focused only on PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs). The third survey was a larger global survey, and included the 12 POPs that were initially included in the Stockholm Convention. Two additional global surveys were performed by the WHO and the United Nations Environment Programme (in collaboration) after the Stockholm Convention had been ratified. POPs concentrations in human milk were found to be significantly different in different countries. The p,pʹ-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,pʹ-DDE), p,pʹ-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,pʹ-DDD), o,pʹ-DDT, p,pʹ-DDT, and β-HCH concentrations in human milk were higher than the concentrations of the other POPs, and the PCB, PCDD/F concentrations in human milk were relatively high. However, aldrin, chlordane, dieldrin, heptachlor and mirex were at relatively low concentrations in human milk. Adequate information is available on the concentrations of PCDD/Fs in human milk. Higher PCDD/F concentrations were found in human milk from developing countries than in human milk from developed countries. Higher
PCDD/F concentrations were found in human milk from European and North American countries than in human milk from countries in the southern hemisphere. PCDD/F concentrations in human milk were found to be decreasing over time in several countries.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/36788
Appears in Collections:城市与区域生态国家重点实验室_学位论文

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董姝君. 履行斯德哥尔摩公约成效评估全球持久性有机污染物监测进展[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2016.
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