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题名: 不同尺度湿地基础设施复合生态管理方法研究
作者: 高洁
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2015-11
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 王如松 ; 李锋
关键词: 不同尺度,复合生态管理,生态基础设施,生态服务功能 ; Different scale, Complex ecological management, Ecological infrastructure, Ecosystem services
其他题名: Research on the method of complex ecological management for wetland infrastruture at different scale
学位专业: 生态学
中文摘要:     湿地是重要的生态基础设施,为维持生态平衡和改善生态环境起着无可替代的重要作用。湿地生态管理是通过调整湿地基础设施的生态过程,保障其结构完整性和功能完善性。湿地基础设施生态管理不仅包括湿地本身功能和过程,也包括引起湿地生态过程变化的社会、经济因素。本文基于复合生态系统理论提出了“源”—“流”—“汇”全过程湿地复合生态管理方法,以及“流域”—“城区”—“社区/厂区”多尺度的湿地管理调控对策。
    “源”生态管理对湿地物质来源产生过程的管理,主要研究耕地、林地、草地、水域以及建设用地面积和格局。在流域尺度上研究土地利用、景观格局变化对流域水文水生态过程的影响,为湿地保护以及流域管理提供借鉴。本文以妫水河流域为研究案例,结果如下:    (1)1986-2011 年流域土地利用发生了明显的变化。近25年来,妫水河流域的耕地减少,林地增加比例为19.3%,湿地面积变化不大,而草地减少10.8%,建设用地增加了7.4%。 (2)近25年来,斑块数目、边缘密度和斑块密度整体呈现显著上升,说明景观的破碎度增加,碎裂化程度增加。流域景观中的优势斑块类型连接性变差,连通性减小、景观的破碎化程度增加。通过进行土地利用、景观格局对水质的相关性分析,表明土地利用、景观格局与水质有显著相关性,说明土地利用变化会导致湿地水环境变化。
(3)从1986年到2011年,流域产水量总体呈现减少的趋势,总氮输出量呈现出先减少后增加的趋势,总氮输出量总体增加4%。平原造林措施使产水量减少0.0024亿立方米,减少幅度为3%。使妫水河流域土壤侵蚀量减少0.041万吨,减少幅度为5%。平原造林措施使总氮输出减少了17.2吨,减少幅度为13%。
(4)通过设置了五种情形模拟对流域水文水生态过程的影响,设置的情形包括耕地保护、水环境保护、水土保持、湿地恢复和整合情形,整合情形指耕地保护与水环境保护情形两种综合。不同的情形(土地地格局和组成)对流域水文水生态过程影响较大,整体比较较优的情形是水土保持情形。而通过对整合情形分析得出缓冲带的设置能有效的减少污染物的输出。

        “流”生态管理对湿地物质产生之后排放过程的管理,主要研究排水系统(包括:自然排水系统、城市排水系统),本研究选择城市排水系统进行管理。考虑新建区和旧城区排水管理的不同,分别选择新建的工厂和旧城区社区为案例进行排水管理研究。本文以旧城区延庆康安社区、新建区马鞍山工厂为案例,城市康安社区主要研究结果如下:
(1)城市开发后,年径流量为开放前的4.8倍,污染物数据相对于开发前也是成倍数增加。湿地、绿地和生态地表(皮)生态基础设施初步设置后,通过SUSTAIN模型进行模拟,模拟结果显示生态基础设施设置后能显著减少污染物和径流输出。
(2)本研究采用分散搜索和非支配遗传算法进行对初步方案设置的生态基础设施方案优化,优化目标包括:径流控制、污染控制和成本控制。径流总量控制目标为年径流总量控制率80%,成本控制方案指达到初步方案削减效率的最小成本方案,径流污染控制指标可采用悬浮物(TSS)、化学需氧量(COD)、总氮(TN)、总磷(TP)等。通过对初步方案的调整得到了不同目标的生态基础设施方案。

    马鞍山某工厂选为新建区排水管理研究案例,厂内工业活动会导致厂区产生大量的污染物,对厂区产生较多污染物,工业活动产生的面源污染对湿地水环境造成一定的影响,本研究以马鞍山工厂为案例研究,结果如下:
(1)通过对不同下垫面径流水质进行监测发现,研究厂区的径流水质污染严,COD,TN,TP值远劣于Ⅴ类水标准。通过对厂区进行生态基础设施规划模拟表明,相对于开发后情形年径流输出量削减41%,污染物输出削减效果都能达到40%以上。
(2)经过初步的生态基础设施布局之后,利用优化模型设置管理目标得到厂区生态基础设施调控方案。在新建厂区时不应占用原有的水系,留足生态空间,同时对绿地湿地进行合理的工程规划,开发过程中进行修复,使开发后的生态服务功能不下降。

    “汇”管理是对湿地物质汇集的管理,主要研究湿地生态系统本身(包括:自然湿地和城市湿地),考虑到城市化对湿地影响较大,对湿地“汇”管理对象为城市湿地,尺度为城区尺度,主要研究结果如下:
(1)本研究首先辨识了25年来,湿地变化过程以及城市建设用地变化过程,研究可以看出城区建设用地扩张较快,城区湿地不仅在数量上有变化,在空间布局上变化也较大。城区湿地来水主要依靠生活污水处理后的尾水补给,水体富营养化严重。
 (2)采用水环境容量模型进行核算,城区湿地水环境容量COD,TN,TP分别为27.8t, 7.9t, 0.4t,根据污染物输入量可以核算到,需要削减的COD,TN,TP分别为89.2%, 95.4%, 98.3%。说明研究区的污染物减排压力较大,通过结合城郊的三里河湿地、谷家营湿地、原位湿地进行构建湿地网络,对湿地生态系统进行修复。
英文摘要:     Wetland is an important infrastructure which plays an irreplaceable role in maintaining ecologcial balances and improving ecological environment. The human activities and land use change have an important impact on wetland. Wetland management is a kind of Social-Economic-Natural Complex Ecosystem problem. To solve this problem, We proposed a complex ecological management of “source-discharge-sink” patterns and “watershed –urban area-community” scales for wetland.
    The “source” management is to manage substance generate process and get appropriate land use plan after detecting the impact of land use change on hydro-ecological processes at watershed scale. The Guishui River Basin was selected as case study to conduct the source management.
 (1) During the past 25 years (1986-2011),there are extraordinary land use changes in Guishui River Basin. Farmland and grassland decreased by 15.5% and 10.8%, respectively.  Forest and construction land expanded about 19.3% and 7.4%.
(2) In the past 25 years,the patch numbers,edge densities and patch densities of different landscape types increased sharply,which means the fragmentation level was high.The aggregation and connectivity became weak. After analyzing the relationship between river water quality and land use types,the result showed water quality indexes were significant correlated with percentages of farmland,grassland,woodland, constructed and wetland area.
(3) As the changes of land use, ecosystem services changed significantly. Between 1986 and 2011,water yield and soil erosion services declined by 57% and 4%, respectively, however,waste discharge increased by 4%.In the same climate condition, afforestation separately reduced water yield,soil erosion and waste discharge services by 3%,5% and 13%.
(4) Five scenarios were set to simulate how landuse changes impact the hydrological and ecological processes in Guishui river basin.The five scenarios were “arable land development”, “water environmental protection”, “water and soil conservation”, “wetland restoration” and integrated scenarios. The hydrological and ecological processes changed significantly under different scenarios.The “water and soil conservation” is a comparatively better scenario.Putting 100m buffer strips can reduce the output of pollution effectively.

    The “discharge” management is to manage the process of discharge of substance. In this study, we chose the urban drainage system as research object. Considering the differences in drainage management between new areas and old areas ,an old urban area (an old community) and new urban area (a new factory) were selected as cases study to conduct the stormwater management.
    (1) An old community area in Yanqing county was selected as a case study to conduct the research. The evaluation results show that under the PostDev scenario, the annual average flow volume increased 4.8 times and the annual average loads of TSS、COD、TN、and TP also increased several times, respectively, compared to the corresponding quantities under the PreDev scenario. EI, such as permeable pavements, vegetated swales, green roofs, and bioretention basins, were planned in this site. After the planning of the implementation of EIs, the evaluation of the system performance was conducted via SUSTAIN. The results indicated that the runoff volume and the pollutant loads could be reduced significantly by properly planning the EIs in the study site.
    (2) The sizes of the implemented EIs could be further adjusted by using the optimization module of SUSTAIN. Scatter search and nondominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) were used in this research. Three control targets have been set including minizing cost, flow control and pollutants control. The control target for average annual flow is to reduce by 80%. The pollutant indexes are TSS, COD, TN, TP. The research result is of practical importance for urban non-point source pollution caused by industrial activities.

    A factory in the city of Ma’anshan, China was selected as a case study for a new urban area drainage management. Stormwater pollution caused by urban runoff resulting from the effects of industrialization on both hydrology and water quality have become an issue.The results are as followings:
(1) Surface runoff pollution was first identified as being caused by different land uses in this site. The monitoring data revealed that the chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) values significantly exceed the Class V surface water quality standard. The results indicated that the pollution caused by the urban surface runoff in the studied area is serious and must be treated。Compared to the developed(PreDev) condition, the plan of EIs (Existing) would cause 41%, 62%,55%,57%,55%, and 60% reduction for the total runoff volume, the TSS load, the dissolved zinc (Zn) load, the TN load, the TP load, and the COD load, respectively.
(2) The EIs plan was obtained by using the optimization algorithm. The new areas should leave enough ecological space for stormwater management and pollution control. To properly design the wetland and green space, the ecosystem services after development were protected from degrading.

    The objects of “sink” management are natural wetland and urban wetland. In this study, the urban wetland was chosen as a case study to conduct “sink” management. Due to rapid development of urbanization, serious ecological and environmental problems happened which caused the degradation of urban wetland,especially in arid areas in northern China. The results showed as followings:
(1) With the rapid urbanization process accelerated, gradually expand the size of the cities, Yanqing's construction land increased year by year. The urban wetland also experienced a significant change in area and location.The eutrophication of urban wetland was severeous because the water comes from sewage treatment plant.
(2) The result showed that water environmental capacity of COD, TN and TP is 27.8t/a, 7.9t/a and 0.4t/a respectively. To meet the water quality standard, the COD, TN, TP need to be reduced by 89.2%,95.4%,98.3%. Combined with the wetland in suburb area, a suit of ecologcial engineerings were selected to rehabilitate the wetland ecosystem.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/36792
Appears in Collections:城市与区域生态国家重点实验室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
高洁. 不同尺度湿地基础设施复合生态管理方法研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2015.
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