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题名: 北方典型农村人居生态基础设施关键技术集成与适应性管理研究
作者: 郜彗
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2015-10
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 王如松 ; 周传斌
关键词: 农村人居环境,生态基础设施,技术集成,物质流分析,投入产出—生命周期分析,能值分析,适应性管理 ; rural residential environment, ecological infrastructure, technology integration, material flow analysis, input-output life cycle assessment, emergy analysis, adaptive management
其他题名: The Study on Technology Integration and Adaptive Management of Rural Residential Ecological Infrastructure in Northern China
学位专业: 生态学
中文摘要:     优化农村人居环境、改善农民生活质量是我国生态文明建设和新型城镇化建设的重要内容。本研究建立了农村人居复合生态系统理论框架,并以农村污水、垃圾、粪便、秸秆所组成的废弃物代谢子系统为研究对象,选取经济条件和气候形成差异梯度的北方三个农村——北京门头沟区水峪嘴村、河南省信阳市郝堂村、吉林省农安县苇子沟村为案例进行了实证研究。本文建立了我国农村人居环境评价指标体系,系统分析了我国农村人居环境的现存问题及其生态学根源,构建了基于复合生态系统理论的农村人居生态基础设施关键技术筛选框架,并结合三个案例村的特点进行关键技术筛选的实证研究。通过各案例村不同类型技术整合和集成的示范工程运行效果以及优化设计,模拟和评估集成后的人居生态基础设施系统在水资源节约、营养物质闭合循环、温室气体减排、经济成本节约、创造就业等方面的综合效益。最后,本文提出了我国北方不同类型农村人居生态基础设施建设的适应性管理与调控对策,以期为北方农村人居环境建设提供技术支撑和理论参考。本文的主要结果是:
    (1)建立了一套由生态环境、基础设施、公共服务、居住条件和经济发展5个亚目标层组成的农村人居环境建设的评价指标体系,运用全排列多边形综合指数方法,计算各亚目标层评价指数和农村人居环境综合指数。结果表明,全国农村人居环境综合指数为0.32,整体水平不高,各分指数和综合指数区域差异显著。北方地区农村除京津地区外,多数省份低于全国平均水平。农村人居生态环境存在“流”过程、“网”结构和“序”功能的失调生态学根源问题。
(2)构建了基于复合生态理论的农村人居生态基础设施关键技术筛选的框架体系,结合三个案例村的特点,开展了Yahhp软件辅助下层次分析法在农村污水和垃圾处理技术筛选中的实证研究。
(3)以接触氧化+潜流湿地组合处理技术为核心的生活污水处理技术,对COD和氨氮等污染物处理效果稳定可靠,同时实现了污水处理和中水回用,比较适合水峪嘴村经济基础好,污水处理水质要求高的特点;由农户庭院型人工湿地+村庄沟渠重力跌水充氧+生态塘组合技术,从污水处理效果和水景观要求上,更适合河南省信阳市郝堂村生态本底良好的实际。
(4)本研究开展了水峪嘴村“户分类、村转运、就地资源化利用”模式的垃圾处理生态工程,示范垃圾源头分类和试制有机垃圾生化处理机,运行效果良好,并对郝堂村现有“村收集、镇转运、县处理”生活垃圾集中处理模式进行改进设计,发现分类收集改进后全村年均可产生18425.68元的经济效益。
(5)研究了投入产出—生命周期评价法在水峪嘴村厕所方案设计中的应用,借助经济净现值法进行技术方案的经济分析。结果表明:相比于传统的水冲厕所,粪尿分离式堆肥厕所的经济效益最高,尿分离自来水冲厕所的能源消耗和温室气体排放最少,而雨水冲厕所(传统厕所和尿分离厕所)经济和环境效益都不可行。未来若抬高水价或是政府补贴,尿分离—雨水冲厕也有作为替代方案的可能。
(6)利用能值分析法定量评估了秸秆成型颗粒在替代煤炭和秸秆直燃技术上的潜力,以苇子沟村玉米种植和农安县秸秆生产企业为例,计算各能值指标。结果显示:秸秆成型颗粒的能值转化率高于煤炭和秸秆,其可持续发展指数为12.11,远高于煤炭和秸秆。
(7)本论文应用物质流分析法,从营养物质循环、面源污染消减、节约水资源、投资收益以及创造就业机会等视角,分析水峪嘴村级单元人居生态基础设施集成系统在生态、社会和经济方面的综合效益。研究结果显示:集成后的生态基础设施每年实现2956.9kg氮、348.81kg磷循环回归农田,避免直接排放环境中而加重农村面源污染;相比于工程改造前,村庄向大气排放的氮减少了83.5%,向水体和土壤环境排放的氮消减了68.13%,磷消减了56.61%;集成系统全年可以降低用于化肥和水费支出的经济投入6.63万元,经济效益明显。此外,城乡人居生态基础设施集成系统可以重构城乡物质“断环”,以达到城乡互补与有效融合,从而从根本上解决城市与农村的人居生态环境问题。
(8)研究了利益相关者理论在农村人居生态基础设施建设中利益主体的识别。并从博弈论的视角具体分析了农村生态基础设施建设中村民、企业和政府的多重利益关系。提出构建多元主体参与建设的管理模式、孵化、培育农村生态服务管理产业、落实技术规范及标准等农村人居生态基础设施建设长效运行机制。
英文摘要:     New urbanization and ecological civilization need to improve rural living environment and quality. This study established the theoretical framework of rural ecological infrastructure with the ecological living infrastructure system as the research object, including rural sewage, garbage, toilet and crop straw. Meanwhile ,three typical villages in northern China was taken as example ,such as Shui yuzui of Mentougou District in Beijing ,Hao tang of Xinyang city in Henan province, and Wei zigou of Nong-an county in Jilin province, they faces the economic differences and climate condition gradient. This paper established the evaluation index system of rural residential environment, and then analyzed the ecological root - cause of rural residential environment. Based on the theory of Social –Economic-Natural Complex Ecosystem (SENCE), screening framework was proposed for technology selection, and three case villages were given empirical analysis considering their features. In addition , operation result and optimal design of pilot projects in case villages were analyzed for integration and conformity of various key technologies .And then , aimed at the integrated system, this paper simulated and evaluated from different perspectives covering nutrition flow circulation, non-point source pollution reduction, water resource conservation ,greenhouse gas reduction and employment opportunities creation. Based on this process, adaptive management measures and control countermeasure were proposed for various rural regions in northern China .With a view to provide a theoretical guidance and technological support for improving rural living environment. The main results were as follows:
(1)This paper established the evaluation index system of rural residential environment, and five sub-object indexes were included, including ecological environment index, infrastructure index, living condition index, public service index and economic development index, With reference to the method of sustainable development, polygon synthesis indicators approach was introduced to calculate the value of sub-object and composite indexes. The results showed that composite indexes were calculated as the value of 0.32, meaning the lower construction level. There were significant difference on both sub-index and composite index.Except for Beijing-Tianjin area, the overall level of the northern China was not high; most provinces were well below the national average. It was disturbance on “flow” process, “network” structure and “order” function that proved to be the ecological root - cause problems.
(2) Based on the theory of Social –Economic-Natural Complex Ecosystem (SENCE), screening framework was proposed for technology selection, and analytic hierarchy process (AHP)method was applied on selecting key technologies for rural sewage and garbage considering case village’s features, as the auxiliary tool with Yaahp software. (3)The composite treatment technology made of contact oxidation and subsurface flow constructed wetland possessed the stable and reliable treatment efficiency on remove of some pollutants like COD and ammoniacal nitrogen. In the meantime , water reuse was realized. Therefore , this technology was proved to be suitable for Shui yuzui village, which featured sound economic foundation and high effluent .In addition, combination technology containing courtyard constructed wetland ,gravity drop aeration ditch and ecological pond, and this combined technology met the demand of the sewage treatment effect and landscape requirements for Haotang village.
(4) This study established the garbage disposal model of “household classification, village transfer and in- situ resource utilization” in Shui yuzui village, development and application of garbage source-separation and small-scale organic waste bio-treatment device were demonstrated and proved the excellent operation. Besides, the existing garbage disposal model of“village collection, township transfer and county treatment”was improved in Hao tang village,research study present that The village could produce the economic benefits of 18425.68 yuan per year, given the respect of garbage classification (5) The method of input-output life cycle assessment and economic net present value were applied in the design of rural toilet alternatives in Shui yuzui village, results found that compared with the traditional flushing toilet, urine-diversion composting had superiority on economic analysis, and urine-diversion tap water flushing toilet proved viable options for greenhouse gas emission and energy consume. Nevertheless, rainwater harvesting toilet technologies were inferior to standard flushing toilet from the respect of economy and environment. If the rising of water price or government subsidies is practiced, urine -separation rainwater flushing toilet may be as an alternative in the future.
(6)Take the Wei zigou village and straw processing enterprise as example, quantitatively assessed the potential of the straw particles for replacing the coal and straw in direct-fired technology. The result of emergy-based indices showed that emergy transformity of straw particles was higher than coal and straw, the value of sustainability Index was 12.11, well above the level of coal and straw
(7)This study analyzed the comprehensive efficiency of human ecological infrastructure integrated system, from a comprehensive perspective of nutrients’ cycle, non-point source pollution reduction, water saving, investment income and job creating. And Shui yuzui village was taken as a example. The result showed that the integrated ecological infrastructure could make a remarkable amount of nitrogen and phosphorus returning to the farmland, with a annual mess of 2956.6kg and 348.81kg respectively, which could avoid the direct discharge to the environment and worsening the non-point source pollution in rural areas. Compared with the condition before the reconstruction, the village air discharge of nitrogen reduced about 83.5%, and the water and soil discharge of nitrogen and phosphorus reduced 68.13%, 56.16, separately. Meanwhile, the integrated system has a significant economic benefit of reducing the water and fertilizer investments for about 663,000 yuan per year. Besides, the integrated system of rural-urban human ecologic infrastructure could reconstruct the "broken cycle" of the rural-urban materials, and build a complementation and fusion between rural areas and urban cities, therefore could radically solve the human ecological problems of them.
(8) Explored the efficiency of stakeholder theory in the identification of stakeholder of rural human ecological infrastructure construction. And used the Game Theory to analyze the multiple interests’ relationships between the farmer, enterprise and the government in the construction of rural human ecological infrastructure. Based on the research, propounded long term operational mechanisms including building a management model of multiple participation of construction, incubating and cultivating the management of rural ecological service, and fulfilling the technological regulations and standards, etc.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/36795
Appears in Collections:城市与区域生态国家重点实验室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
郜彗. 北方典型农村人居生态基础设施关键技术集成与适应性管理研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2015.
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