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题名: 全国生态系统水文调节功能空间特征及其影响因素
作者: 龚诗涵
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2016-05
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 欧阳志云
关键词: 生态系统 ; 水文调节 ; Ecosystem, Water retention, Forest ecosystem, Grassland ecosystem, Spatial characteristics, Natural factor, Human actives ; 森林生态系统 ; 草地生态系统 ; 空间特征 ; 自 然因子 ; 人类活动
其他题名: Spatial patterns of water regulating service and its influence factors in China
学位专业: 生态学
中文摘要:     水不仅是地球生命之源,还是人类生存与发展的基础,人类的一切生产及生活都离不开水的支撑。我国水资源时空分布不均,生态系统在水资源调节中发挥关键的作用,科学认识我国生态系统水文调节功能及其空间格局,对制定科学合理的生态系统保护对策具有十分重要的意义。
    本研究以全国生态系统格局数据为基础,收集与整理了大量有关生态系统水调节功能的文献,构建了森林、灌丛与草地生态系统水文调节特征模型,确定全国主要生态系统类型的地表径流参数,然后利用地理信息系统技术,定量评估了全国生态系统水文调节服务功能,明确了全国生态系统水文调节功能的空间特征,分析了近2000-2010 年间生态系统水文调节服务功能变化及其影响因素。主要研究结论如下:
(1) 全国主要生态系统类型是森林、草地、湿地、荒漠、农田与城市生态系统,其中农田、森林、草地生态系统面积比例分别为19.1%、30.1%、20.2%。生态系统格局在2000–2010 年间局部地区发生了较大变化。2010 年森林生态系统面积为191.17 万 km2,比2000 年净增长1.49 万km2,增加0.8%。农田生态系统净减少4.11 万km2,减少2.2 %。
(2)不同森林生态系统类型水文调节功能有显著差异,其强弱顺序为:天然阔叶林>针阔混交林>天然针叶林。径流系数与森林覆盖存在显著的负相关特征,随着森林覆盖度的增加,森林径流系数呈幂函数式的降低。基于大量的文献数据,构建了不同森林生态系统水文调节功能模型。
(3) 2010 年全国生态系统水文调节总量为12224.33 亿m3。森林生态系统是我国生态系统水文调节的主体,其水文调节量为7432.32 亿m3,约占全国水文调节总量的60.80%,;草地、灌丛生态系统的水文调节量分别为1912.54亿m3、1723.68 亿m3,各占总量的15.65%、14.10%。从单位面积水文调节量来看,水文调节能力最强的是森林和园地,分别为39.21 万m3km-2 a-1 和46.79万m3km-2 a-1。
(4)揭示了全国生态系统水文调节功能重要性空间格局,水文调节功能总体上呈现东南高西北低、由东到西逐渐递减特征。全国水文调节功能极重要区面积143.49 万km2,水文调节总量为6486.57 亿m3,分布主要在大小兴安岭、长白山、秦岭、大巴山、岷山、武夷山区、海南中部山区、藏东南等地。重要区面积为101.58 万km2,水文调节总量为2977.70 亿m3。中等重要区面积为80.18万km2,水文调节总量为1695.13 亿m3。一般区面积为619.75 万km2,水文调节总量仅为1062.85 亿m3。
(5)2000–2010 年,我国生态系统水文调节总量呈现增加的趋势。从2000年的12130.78 亿m3 增加到2010 年的12224.33 亿m3,十年共增加93.55 亿m3,增幅为0.77%。森林生态系统水文调节总量呈现增加的趋势,灌丛和草地生态系统的水文调节总量呈现减少的趋势。
(6)中国生态系统水文调节功能与气候和人类活动的关系非常密切,自然因子包括降水、温度、蒸散、坡度与水文调节呈现显著的正相关。而人类因子除了长江生态建设工程与水文调节呈显著的正相关外,GDP 密度和农村人口密度与其呈明显的负相关。气候与地形因子是直接影响生态系统水文调节量分布的主要因素,人类因子则通过改变地表生态系统格局和干扰生态系统过程,间接影响生态系统水文调节功能。人们在追求经济发展的同时,应关注生态系统所提供的水文调节功能,规范人类活动来维持和保育生态系统功能,进而保护人类的生存环境,以实现社会、经济、生态环境协调的可持续发展。
英文摘要:     Water resources are not only the source of life on earth, but also the foundation of human survival and development. All human production and life rely on the water resource. Water resources in China are mal-distributed in space and time. Ecological system play a key role in the regulation of water resources. Scientific understanding of ecosystem hydrological regulation function and its spatial pattern, has very important significance for making scientific and reasonable ecological system protection strategies.
    Based on the data of the national ecological system, a large amount of literatures about the hydrological regulation function were collected and sorted out in our study. Hydrological regulation models of natural ecosystem (forest, shrub and grassland) were proposed and model parameters about surface runoff of the main ecosystem types were determined. Additionally, based on assessment model above and using geographic information system technology, we quantitatively evaluated the hydrological regulation services in China, and analyzed the spatial-temporal changes characteristics of water regulation function and its influencing factors in the recent 2000-2010 years. The main conclusions are as follows:
(1) The main ecosystem types in China are forest, grassland, wetland, desert,farmland and urban ecosystem, in which the proportion of farmland, forest and grassland ecosystem is 19.1%, 30.1% and 20.2%, respectively. Ecosystem patterns have changed greatly in the regional area during 2000-2010 years. The area of forest ecosystem is 191.17 x104km2 in 2010, increased 1.49x104km2 compared with 2000, increased by 0.8%. Farmland ecosystem decreased 4.1 x104km2, decreased by 2.2%.
(2) There are significant differences in hydrological regulation function between different forest ecosystems in China. The strong-to-weak sequence is: natural broad leaved forest >mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forest >natural coniferous forest. The runoff coefficient and the forest cover had significant negative correlation character. With the increase of forest cover, the forest runoff coefficient was decreased in a power function. Based on a large amount of literature data, the hydrological regulation models of different forest ecosystems were proposed.
( 3 ) The total amount of water retention in China in 2010 was 12224.33x108m3. The forest as the main carrier of water retention, holds the water retention with amount of 7432.32 x108m3, which is about 60.80% of the total national hydrological regulation. The hydrological regulation of grassland and shrub ecosystem are 1912.54 x108m3、1723.68 x108m3, respectively, which are about 15.65% and 14.10% of the total national hydrological regulation, respectively. From the point of view of the unit area of hydrological regulation, the forest and garden have the most powerful hydrological regulation capacity, which are 39.21 x104 m3km-2 a-1 and 46.79 x104 m3km-2 a-1.
(4) This research reveals the important spatial pattern of the hydrological regulation function of the whole nation, and the hydrological regulation function generally presents the characteristics of the southeast high and northwest low, gradually decreasing from the east to the West. The very important area of hydrological regulation function is about 143.49 x104km2. Total hydrological regulation amount is 6486.57 x108m3, mainly distributed in the Da and Xiao Hinggan Mountains, Changbai Mountain, Qinling Mountain, Daba Mountain,
Minshan, Wuyi Mountain, the central mountain in Hainan, Southeast Tibet etc.. The important area is 101.58 x104km2 and the corresponding total hydrological regulation amount is 2977.70 x108m3. Moderately important area is 80.18 x104km2 and the corresponding total hydrological regulation amount is 1695.13 x108m3. General area is 619.75 x104km2 and the corresponding total hydrological regulation amount is only 1062.85 x108m3.
(5)The total hydrological regulation amount of the ecological system in China is increasing between 2000-2010 from 12130.78 x108m3 in 2000 to 12224.33 x108m3 in 2010. Total 93.55 x108m3 was increased, the increased ratio is 0.77%. The total amount of  hydrological regulation of forest ecosystem showed an increasing trend, and the total amount of hydrological regulation of shrub and grassland ecosystem showed a decreasing trend.
(6)The hydrological regulation function of Chinese ecosystem is closely related to climate and human activities, and the natural factors including precipitation, temperature, evapotranspiration and slope show significant positive correlation with hydrological regulation. For human factors, the Yangtze River ecological construction project and hydrological regulation was significantly positive correlation, and GDP density and rural population density and hydrological regulation showed a significant negative correlation. Climate and terrain factor is main factors which directly affect the ecosystem hydrological regulation distribution.And human factor affects the ecosystem hydrological regulation function indirectly by changing the surface ecosystem pattern and disturbing ecosystem process. At the same time with the pursuing of economic development, people should also pay attention to the hydrological regulation function provided by ecological system and
regulate human activities to maintain and conserve ecosystem function to further to protect the life environment of human beings, to achieve the sustainable development of the society, economy and ecological environment.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/36796
Appears in Collections:城市与区域生态国家重点实验室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
龚诗涵. 全国生态系统水文调节功能空间特征及其影响因素[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2016.
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