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题名: 北京和保定地区 PM2.5中微生物群落组成及相关性研究
作者: 胡亚东
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 2016-05
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 庄国强
关键词: 大气细颗粒物(PM2.5),微生物,细菌,地理距离,气团传输 ; Fine Particulate (PM2.5), Microbiological Aerosol, Bacteria, Geographical Distance, Air Mass Transfer.
其他题名: Microbial community structure and correlation analysis of PM2.5 between Beijing and Baoding
学位专业: 环境工程
中文摘要:       近年来,我国京津冀地区雾霾污染严重,大气细颗粒物( PM2.5)已成为导致雾霾天气频发的主导因素。PM2.5不仅能够在空气中停留且传播很长时间,导致能见度降低,影响正常出行;还能够携带有毒有害物质进入于支气管沉积于人体肺泡甚至血液系统中,对人体健康构成严重的威胁。世界上最主要的 41种重大传染病,其中 14种由空气中的微生物传播。微生物在空气中传播疾病的能力主要依赖于其依附的固体颗粒大小,大气细颗粒物粒径在一定程度上影响了空气微生物的污染现状。大气细颗粒物的生物特性,增加了其危害程度。
      本研究对北京城区和保定郊区  2014-2015年冬季大气细颗粒物(PM2.5)中微生物群落组成进行了培养和非培养(Miseq测序技术)的研究。测序结果表明,两地 PM2.5颗粒物细菌群落结构相似,优势细菌门类均由厚壁菌门(Firmicutes)、拟杆菌门(Bacteroidetes)、γ−变形菌门(Gammaproteobacteria)和β−变形菌门(Betaproteobacteria)四个类群组成,但各类群在丰度上存在一定差异。与保定地区相比,北京地区厚壁菌门( Firmicutes)的丰度更高。并且,通过对PM2.5中细菌的可培养性研究得到的三大门类的细菌:厚壁菌门(Firmicutes)、放线菌门(Actinobacteria)和变形菌门(Proteobacteria)。培养得到的上述细菌门类即为测序结果中的优势菌门。
      同时,本研究对北京城区和保定郊区 PM2.5中微生物群落多样性与环境因子(PM2.5输对两地 PM2.5中微生物群落结构之间可能存在的相关关系。结果表明,地理距离是影响两地区PM2.5的理化因子、两地区地理坐标)的相关性进行了分析,并讨论了气团传
英文摘要:       In  recent   years,  fog   haze  pollution  has   become  a  serious   problem  in   the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei  region,   and  the   Particulate  Matter   2.5  (PM2.5)   has  been considered  as the  leading  factor  for  the frequent  fog  weather.  PM2.5  can  not only reduce the visibility  and affect the normal  travel for its long  residence in the air,  it is also  capable   of  carrying   toxic  and   harmful   substances  into   the  bronchial   and depositing in the body Alveolar and even blood system, constituting a serious threat to human health.    14  kinds of  the world’s  most major  41 kinds  of infectious  diseases are  transmitted   by   the  microbe   in   the  air.     The   disease   spreading  ability   of microorganisms  in  air mainly  depends  on  the  size  of  the attached  solid  particles, which to some extent impact the pollution  status of air microorganisms.    Meanwhile,
the   biological   characteristics   of   atmospheric   fine   particles    contribute   to   the perniciousness.
      In this  work, the  microbial community  compositions of PM2.5  samples gained during the winter from 2014 to 2015 from the urban area of Beijing and the suburbs of Baoding  were  investigated  by  cultivation   and  non-cultivation  (Miseq  sequencing technology) methods. The sequencing results showed that the PM2.5 particles bacteria community  structure  were  similar   in  both  areas,  with  Firmicutes,   Bacteroidetes, Gammaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria as the predominant bacteria categories.
      Firmicutes was  in more  abundance in  Beijing  compared with  that of  Baoding area. Additionally,   three  kinds   of   bacteria   including  Firmicutes,   Actinobacteria   and Proteobacteria were detected in the cultivation research, which was in  consistent with the predominant bacteria categories.
      Furthermore,   the  correlation   between   microbial  community   diversity   and environmental  factors  (the  physicochemical  factors  of  PM2.5,   and  the  geographic coordinates  ) in  the  two regions,  as  well as  the  correlativity between  the  air mass transfer  and the  microbial  community  structure of  PM2.5 were  studied.  The  results indicated that the geographical distance dominated the microbial community diversity,and  air  mass  transfer  may be  an  important  factor  affecting  microbial  community structure diversity of PM2.5.
      The correlation between  microbial community and  the living environment  was comprehensively analyzed in this study from the perspective of time and space, which will provide scientific  basis for environmental management and  decision-making and health risk assessment.
内容类型: 学位论文
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Recommended Citation:
胡亚东. 北京和保定地区 PM2.5中微生物群落组成及相关性研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2016.
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