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题名: 我国PFOS 类国际环境公约履约对策研究
作者: 李秋爽
学位类别: 博士后
答辩日期: 2015-10
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 傅伯杰 ; 吕永龙
关键词: 全氟辛基磺酸化合物 ; 全氟辛基磺酰氟 ; perfluorooctane sulfonate, persistant organic pollutants, Stockholm Convention, inventory investigation, alternative, policy, regulation ; 履约 ; 清单调查 ; 替代品 ; 政策 ; 法规
其他题名: Strategy of phasing PFOS in China for implementing Stockholm Convention on POPs
学位专业: 生态学
中文摘要:     全氟辛烷磺酸(PFOS)及其盐类作为一类新型持久性有机污染物(POPs),已引起各国政府、工业界及学术界的广泛关注。2009 年5 月,《斯德哥尔摩公约》第四次缔约方大会(COP4)通过决议,将PFOS 类作为9 种新增POPs 之一列入公约管制名单。尽管PFOS 在大部分发达国家均已停产和限制使用,但目前在我国仍有批量生产和使用。然而,国内关于PFOS 类的研究处于起步阶段,尚未对PFOS类生产、使用和排放情况展开系统调查,缺乏对现有替代技术的调查和评估,现存管理政策与履约需求仍存在相当差距。因此,本研究试图通过行业调研、分析和评估,厘清国内PFOS 类生产、使用和排放情况,总结和剖析国内外替代技术,结合国内政策法规现状,提出履约对策建议,以期为国家POPs 履约提供及时的技术支持,推动POPs 履约国家实施计划的修订及其实施工作。
主要研究结论如下:
1. 我国PFOS 类生产、使用和初步排放清单:一是生产方面,我国有数十家企业采用PFOS/PFOSF 生产和配制下游工业和民用产品,数百家企业使用此类下游产品。二是使用方面,我国95%以上的PFOS/PFOSF 用于消防行业的灭火泡沫、石油行业的化学采油和金属电镀行业的铬雾抑制剂;少量PFOS/PFOSF 用于防治白蚁和蜚蠊和冶金工业等;另有部分PFOS/PFOSF 出口到南美洲或欧洲的部分国家。三是排放方面,我国每年PFOS 类排放约93-101 吨,其中排放到水体和土壤中的PFOS 类各约50%,另有少量排放到大气中。
2. 替代品和替代技术分析:国际上在氟表面活性剂、卫生杀虫剂、电镀行业铬雾抑制剂等主要应用领域,均有环境友好较高和经济成本较低的成熟替代品。国内在PFOS 类替代技术方面尚存在较大差距,主要领域的替代品尚处在研发探索阶段。
3. 政策法规评估:对照《斯德哥尔摩公约》,我国现行PFOS 类相关政策法规从生产使用、进出口、库存管理、废物和污染场地管理、化学品替代等各环节尚存在不同程度的缺位,相关名录、标准、技术导则等亟待补充完善。
4. 我国PFOS 类履约对策建议:战略上,建议切实加强源头管控、技术研发、消费引导、产业升级、末端治理。行动上,建议严格把握生产使用管控、替代品管理和开发、公众意识加强、废物和污染场地管理、监测和风险评估等环节,逐步实现PFOS 类淘汰和替代。
英文摘要:     As new persistant organic pollutants (POPs), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and related substances have attracted broad attention from government, industry and academia. In Sep 2009, PFOS and related chemicals were included in Annex B of the Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants by the Fourth Conference of Parties. Although the production and use of PFOS and related chemicals have been restricted or eliminated in most developed countries, they are still manufactured and used in relatively large quantities in China. However, the study on PFOS and related chemicals was still in a preliminary stage. There is still no systematic investigations on production, application and emissions of PFOS and related chemicals. Very few study has been done on investigation and assessment on alternatives of PFOS and related chemicals. There is a huge gap between management policy of PFOS and related chemicals and requirements of the convention. In this thesis, the current production, application and emission status of PFOS and related chemicals were identified based on industy surveys. Alternative technologies of PFOS and related chemicals were analysed and summarized. Combining the exsisting policies and
regulations, countermeasure and suggestions of phasing PFOS in China for implementing the convention were proposed.
Main conclusions of the study are as follows:
(1) The inventory of production, application and emission of PFOS and related chemicals indicated that: a) Dozens of enterprises adopting PFOS/PFOSF to product or prepare for downstream industrial or civil products, which were used by hundreds of companies. b) Over 95% of PFOS/PFOSF was used in fire-extinguishing foam in fire-fighting industry, chemistry-based recovery in oil industry and chrome-fog depressant in plating industry. A small amount of PFOS/PFOSF was applied in controlling termites and cockroaches and metallurgical industry. Besides, some of PFOS/PFOSF was exported to South America or Europe. c) The total amount of PFOS and related chemicals emissions was about 93-101 ton, most of emissions were released in soil and water.
(2) According to he analysis of alternatives and alternative technologies, it was found that: Environmentally friendly and low-cost alternatives to PFOS and related chemicals have been developled in fluorinated surfactant, health pesticides and chrome-fog depressant in foreign contries. While the research of alternative technologies to PFOS was still at the stage of exploring in China.
(3) The assessment of policies and regulations showed the absence of laws and regulations of PFOS management in many aspects, including production and application, imports and exports, inventory management, waste and pollution site management, alternatives management and so on. Related directories, standards and technical guidelines needed further improvement and supplementation.
(4) Based on investigations and assessments, it was suggested to improve source control, technology development, consumption guide, industrial upgrading, end treatment strategically, and to strengthen production and use regulation,alternatives management and development, public consciousness improvement, waste and pollution site management, monitoring and risk assessment in action,in order to gradually phase PFOS and related chemicals.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/36881
Appears in Collections:城市与区域生态国家重点实验室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
李秋爽. 我国PFOS 类国际环境公约履约对策研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2015.
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