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题名: 国家煤电基地能源资源经济开发模式及环境管理对策 ——以内蒙古锡林郭勒盟为例
作者: 马一丁
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2016-05
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 吴钢 ; 严岩
关键词: 锡林郭勒盟,煤电基地,生态承载力,资源环境承载力 ; Xilinguole league, coal-electricity base, ecological capacity, resource environmental bearing-capacity
其他题名: The ecnomical energy resource development mode and regional environmental management measures of the coal- electricity base in Xilinguole League
学位专业: 环境经济与环境管理
中文摘要:     大型煤电基地建设是进行远距离大容量输电的基本条件,也是保证国家能源安全的重要发展战略,对加快区域经济发展、提升产业结构具有重大战略意义,同时煤电基地的建设也关乎国家生态安全。内蒙古锡林郭勒盟(以下简称锡盟)是我国建设大型煤电基地的重点区域,鉴于该地区是国家的生态脆弱区,同时也是重要的水源涵养区及重要的生态安全保障区。大型煤电基地的建设既要统筹当地的经济发展,又要考虑煤电基地建设对区域生态环境的影响,因此,如何在科学论证、合理布局的思路下总揽对煤电基地的运筹与建设,成为需要解决的关键前瞻性战略问题。本文在详细调研和收集测试相关背景数据的基础上,重点分析了煤电基地的经济社会基本状况、开发管理模式及其在建设过程中对生态环境的影响。在空间尺度上,分析了煤电基地建设对于周边乃至首都的生态环境影响;在时间尺度上,以现状年到 2020  年,分不同情景剖析了煤电基地的开发模式与相关影响。
    以区域的环境现状、污染排放现状及污染源现状为基础数据,对煤电基地开发进行了生态影响的预测研究。分析了锡盟煤电基地所在区域的环境承载力、资源承载力、生态承载力状况及用地适宜性,并提出了在保障和改善生态环境下煤电基地开发的具体建议与对策。
    锡盟煤炭资源富集,地广人稀、空间容量大,区位条件相对较好。锡盟具有建设大型电源基地的资源优势、区位优势,它的电力资源对自治区乃至华北、东北、华东等出现用电缺口地区的经济发展起着重要支撑作用。该地区适合开展煤电一体化,整合煤电产业链,建立坑口电厂,集中高效开发煤炭资源。
    通过对锡盟煤电基地所在区域的环境和资源承载力分析得出:区域整体空气质量良好,环境容量在预测年限内可以支撑煤电基地建设;锡林浩特市是行政区中大气污染物排放量最大的地区,大气颗粒物尤为突出,其次是西乌珠穆沁旗和正蓝旗,大气污染物排放量主要集中在锡盟中部和东部煤电基地建设区,需要加强环境治理;煤电基地建成后会对首都大气产生一定的 PM2.5输出负荷,从锡盟扩散到北京的 PM2.5浓度大约为0.0002mg/m3,年平均浓度贡献率约 0.6%,影响面积约 5000km2,占北京面积比例约 31%。
    地表水环境状况整体良好,而七大矿区中胜利矿区和巴彦宝力格矿区水环境已无污染物承载能力,需要加强对水体的综合处理。煤电基地的煤炭开采过程和发电过程均产生固体废弃物,以煤矸石为主,预测2020 年排放将达到 2019万t/a,需要加强对固体废弃物的综合整治。区域的现有煤炭资源和可供开采煤炭资源可以支撑规划要求的煤电基地发电规模。
    从锡盟煤电基地规划的矿区来看,综合承载能力指数为高和较高的面积占比分别为 30.32%、38.42%,综合承载能力指数为中的面积占比为 22.76%,综合承载能力指数为低和较低的总面积占规划矿区总面积的 8.49%。其中,查干淖尔矿区所处区位临近浑善达克沙地,矿区的中度敏感区域最大,中度以上生态脆弱区所占的面积比例为  92.93%,需要加大煤电开发的过程在该地区的生态修复,增强区域的生态承载能力。同时,巴彦宝力格矿区紧邻锡林郭勒草原国家自然保护区,矿区内分布着大量的湿地资源,生态压力较大,需要采取限制开发和采取有效措施保护湿地。
    最后,本文分别从煤炭开采、规划布局、资源利用、环境保护、生态保护及环境管理等角度针对锡盟煤电基地建设提出具体的管理对策及环境保护措施建议。
英文摘要:     The   construction   of   large   scale   coal-electricity   base   is   the  fundamental requirements of large  capacity power transmission  over long distances, which  is also an  important part  of  the  national  energy security  strategy,  aimed  to accelerate  the regional economic development and upgrade industrial structure, at the same time, the construction of coal-electricity base is related to the national ecological security.  Inner Mongolia's Xilinguole league area  (hereinafter referred to as XiMeng) is  the key area of our country's construction of large-scale coal-electricity bases. Considering that this region is  located  in ecological  fragile areas  of the  country,  where is  also important headwater area, the construction of large-scale coal-electricity bases should cohere the local economic development, and the influence of coal-electricity base construction on the regional  ecological environment. Therefore,  how to  scientifically and reasonably layout  under  the  idea  of  commanding  the  management  and construction  of  coal-electricity bases, becomes the key forward-looking strategic issues needed to be solved.
    Background evaluation is based on the detailed investigation and relevant test data. The development and management mode and its influence on ecological environment in the process of  construction are  analyzed. In the  spatial scales,  the influence of  the coal-electricity bases on the surrounding area and the ecological environment impact on the capital are discussed; on the time scale, as a period to 2020, different situation analyses coal base development mode and related effects are obtained.
    Based on regional environmental current situation, status quo and pollution status of  emissions  data,  the  ecological  impacts   of  projections  for  coal-electricity  base development are  researched.  The environmental  bearing capacity,  resource carrying capacity, ecological  carrying capacity and land  suitability are  analyzed. And specific suggestions and countermeasures to ensure and improve the ecological environment of coal-electricity bases are given.
    XiMeng is enriching of coal resources, sparsely populated,  large capacity of land area. The regional conditions are relatively fitted for coal-electricity bases construction.XiMeng has  the advantages  to the  construction  of large  power supply  base, and  its power resources  could be  supplied to North  China, Northeast  China, East China  for supporting  the  development  of  these areas.  XiMeng  is  suited  to  actively  conduct electricity integration, carry out an integration of the coal industry chain, build pithead power plant, so as to concentrated and efficiently developed coal resources.
    Through the analysis of air bearing capacity: the regional air quality is well overall,the  air  environmental  capacity  can  support coal  base  construction  in  the  forecast construction  period,  combining  the  Xilinhaote  city  is  one  of  the  largest  regional administrative regions of the atmospheric pollutants emissions, atmospheric particulate atter  especially,   followed  by  west   Wuzhumuqin  League   and  Zhenglanqi.  The atmospheric pollutant emissions are mainly concentrated in the central and eastern area, where is needed to strengthen environmental management; After the completion of the influence of coal-electricity base on capital, the results show that the base will produce a  certain  amount  atmospheric PM2.5,  output  PM2.5  concentrations  from  XiMeng
spreading   to  Beijing   around   0.0002  mg/m3  ,   the  annual   average   concentration contribution rate is about 0.6%, the impact area is about 5000 km2 , which is accounting for about 31% in the Beijing area ratio.
    The surface aquatic environment shows a  relatively good performance, while the Shengli and the Bayanbaolige mining area  has no pollutant carrying capacity of water environment; In the coal mining process and power generation, solid waste is produced,mainly as coal gangue, predicting that in 2020 the emission will reach 20.19 million t/a,needed to  be reduced;  The existing  coal resources  and other  resources available  for exploitation of coal can support the planning requirements.
    The area of the high carrying capacity index and relatively high carrying capacity index area takes a  ratio of 30.32%, 38.42% of the  whole XiMeng, with a middle  area of  22.76% and  a lower  area  of  8.49%. The  Chagannaoer mining  area  locates near Hunshandake sand, whose  moderate or more ecologically fragile  area takes a ratio of
92.93%, showing the environment protection is needed to strengthen. At the same time,the Bayanbaolige  mining area  adjacent to xilingol  grassland national  nature reserve,where needs to  carry strict development limits  and take effective measures  to protect wetland resources..
    This   paper  put   forward   concrete  management   issues   and   protection  measures respectively  from coal  mining,  planning layout,  resource  utilization, environmental protection, ecological  protection and  environmental  management, for  XiMeng coal-electricity base.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/36902
Appears in Collections:城市与区域生态国家重点实验室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
马一丁. 国家煤电基地能源资源经济开发模式及环境管理对策 ——以内蒙古锡林郭勒盟为例[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2016.
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