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题名: 乡村生活污水处理排放标准制定研究 ——基于常熟案例
作者: 穆丹丹
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 2016-11
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 范彬
关键词: 乡村污水,排放标准,水质模型,污染物控制指标,排放限值 ; rural sewage, discharge standard, water quality model, pollutant control indicators, discharge limits
其他题名: Research on Discharge Standard of Rural Domestic Sewage ——Basing on the Changshu Case
学位专业: 环境工程
中文摘要:     目前,针对乡村生活污水处理设施,我国在国家层面尚未出台专门的污染物排放标准,各地实践中,只能参照城镇污水处理厂污染物排放标准或先行制定地方性排放标准。由于制定过程缺乏上位标准或规范的引导,这些标准的地区性差异显著、适用性较差、实际使用效果也不甚理想。针对上述情况,本论文开展了乡村生活污水处理排放标准的制定技术研究,提出了我国乡村污水处理排放标准的制定框架;针对关键环节,构建了污水处理设施出水在输送过程的水质模型,并运用实测数据进行了适用性检验;以常熟市为研究样本,开展了乡村污水处理排放标准的案例研究。
    我国乡村生活污水处理排放标准的制定框架可概括为:在国家层面上制定统一的指导性规范,各地方可参照规范因地制宜地制定适合本地区的排放标准;确定COD、SS、氨氮、总氮、总磷和粪大肠菌群数6项指标作为控制性指标,各地区依据环境敏感程度分类选取;对于进入受控水体的设施出水,依据受控水体水质要求,运用设施出水输送过程的水质模型反演设施出水污染物排放限值,综合考虑污水处理技术的可达性,制定污水处理设施的污染物排放标准值。
       设施出水经由沟渠、池塘以及村内水道汇入受控水体的输送过程是污水处理过程的延伸。基于污染物在输送过程的衰减作用与设施出水汇入两方面因素,采用一维水质模型构建了单污染源排放、多污染源排放两种模式下的设施出水输送过程水质模型。以常熟市典型乡村河流作为研究对象,开展模型的适用性检验。结果显示污染物浓度的相对偏差可控制在5%~7%之间,验证了水质模型的适用性。
       在案例研究中,依照常熟市环境敏感区划分,选取COD、SS、氨氮、总氮、总磷和粪大肠菌群数6项指标作为污染物控制指标。在受控水体为III类水质要求下,采用设施出水输送过程水质模型获得污染物排放限值,综合考虑现有技术处理性能,确定常熟市乡村生活污水处理排放标准的指标控制值为COD 60mg/L,氨氮15mg/L,总氮20mg/L,总磷2mg/L,SS 20mg/L,粪大肠菌群数104个/L。
英文摘要:       So far, China has not yet developed a dischage standard for rural decentralized sewage treatment facilities at a national level. The local can only executive urban sewage treatment plant pollutant dischage standard or develop local dischage standard. As the lack of guidance of superior standards or norms in the development process, there are some problems with these standards, such as significant regional difference, poor applicability and poor performance in actual situation. In view of the above, a study on dischage standard of rural domestic sewage in China is carried out, and a formulated framework of rural domestic sewage treatment dischage standard is builded up. What’s more, a water quality model for the transportation process of effluent of facilities is established, and testing its applicability with the actual measured dates. Then a case study of rural domestic sewage treatment dischage standard in Changshu city is carried out. The formulated framework of rural domestic sewage treatment dischage standard is: developing uniform guidance norms at a national level, and the local develops its suitable dischage standard in accordance with the norm and its actual conditions. Six pollutant control targets are selected distinctively according to the environmental sensitivity of rural areas, including COD, SS, ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and fecal coliform numbers. According to the water quality requirements of controlled water bodies, the pollutant discharge limits are formulated for effluent of facilities entering controlled water bodies, employing water quality model for transportation process of effluent of facilities, and considering the accessibility of sewage treatment technologies.
      The transportation process from sewage treatment facilities to controlled water bodies through ditches, ponds and village waterways can be seen as an extension of sewage treatment. The water quality model for the transportation process of effluent of facilities is established in two modes of single-point source discharge and multi-point source discharge, using one-dimensional water quality model, and basing on the influence of pollutant attenuation and influx of effluent of facilities. Taking a typical river in Changshu as the research object, the applicability of the water quality model is tested. The results show that the relative deviation can be controlled between 5% and 7%, which verifies the applicability of the water quality model.
      In the case study, six indicators of COD, SS, ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and fecal coliform numbers are selected, according to the environmental sensitive degree in Changshu. At the request of water quality of controlled water bodies for Class III, the pollutant discharge limits are obtained by using the water quality model for the transportation process of effluent of facilities. Considering the performance of existing sewage treatment technologies, the discharge limits of rural domestic sewage treatment dischage standard in Changshu are seted as: COD 60mg/L, ammonia nitrogen 15mg/L, total nitrogen 20mg/L, total phosphorus 2mg/L, SS 20 mg/L, fecal coliform numbers 104/L.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/36903
Appears in Collections:水污染控制技术研究室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
穆丹丹. 乡村生活污水处理排放标准制定研究 ——基于常熟案例[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2016.
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