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题名: 松花江流域沿岸土地利用变化与水环境风险管理研究
作者: 谭立波
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2016-05
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 吴钢
关键词: 沿岸土地利用,水环境,生态威胁,风险管理,松花江流域 ; riverside land use, water environment, ecological threat, risk management, Songhua River Basin
其他题名: Study on the Riverside Land Use Change and Water Environment Risk Management in the Songhua River Basin
学位专业: 环境经济与环境管理
中文摘要:       沿岸土地作为水生生态系统与陆地生态系统间有着频繁物质和能量交换的特殊区域,其生态环境变化与资源利用日益受到关注。近些年来,随着区域的人口增加和经济发展,社会经济系统对自然资源的需求量和污染物排放量大增,导致土地和水资源的开发与保护之间的矛盾日益加剧。位于中国东北地区北部的松花江流域是我国七大流域之一,既是我国重要的工业和农业基地,也是东北地区生态安全的重要防线。在这种背景下,本研究从全流域统筹角度出发,明确流域沿岸土地利用变化的程度和方向并揭示其主要影响因素,同时,综合生态威胁评价与潜在风险识别来进行沿岸水环境风险评估,并提出风险防治建议,进而协调流域内社会经济发展与环境保护之间的关系,构建合理的沿岸生态安全格局,为松花江流域复合生态系统的可持续发展提供综合管理对策。本研究的重点研究内容与主要结论如下:
    (1)本研究针对松花江流域三级以上河流,分析2000 年、2005 年及2010年沿岸500 m、1000 m 与2000 m 宽度内土地利用格局及其变化规律,并以子流域为单元,研究不同分区的沿岸生态系统组成。流域不同宽度的沿岸土地利用格局虽有一定差异,但均以林地、耕地和湿地为主。随着与河道距离的增加,人类的干扰程度随之增加。从时间上分析,沿岸2000 m 范围内湿地面积的持续萎缩需引起重视。在0 ~ 500 m 范围内,“耕地为主,林地与湿地为辅”的土地利用格局十分显著,而在500 ~ 1000 m 与1000 ~ 2000 m 范围则转变为“耕地为主,林地为辅”的土地利用格局。在此基础上,结合不同年份流域各河段的水质级别,分析不同宽度沿岸土地利用与水质的关系,发现两者之间存在一定的联系。推动流域沿岸土地利用变化的主要影响因素是人口增加、经济发展、城镇化过程和区域政策等。
    (2)以松花江流域为研究对象,综合水文与行政边界将其分为204 个评价单元,选择对河流生态系统有重要影响的人类干扰共10 个因素,运用改进的综合生态威胁指数对流域进行综合评价。结果表明:以省会城市长春和哈尔滨为中心的平原区及地级市市辖区所受的威胁程度最高,而位于松花江流域边界的山区所受的威胁程度较低。与城镇化相关的、与农业发展相关的及与人工设施建设相关的单因素频度呈现出不同的空间分布特征。为进一步探究各因素对综合生态威胁指数的影响,对比单因素移除后的生态威胁指数显示,任何单因素的移除并不会对流域的综合格局产生显著影响。因此,对大尺度空间进行生态威胁评价时,适当精简评价因素不会对结果产生较大影响,该方法可以在成本有限的情况下运用易获取的数据得到较为有效的评价结果。
    (3)根据《2012 年废水国家重点监控企业名单》,沿松花江1 km 范围内(到三级支流)分布的45 家重点废水产生企业被识别为流域水环境潜在污染风险源。通过计算沿岸企业与重点区域的废水产生量来评估水环境潜在污染风险源强弱,由对应河段的水质状况表征水体对潜在污染风险的缓冲能力,并将区域总人口数、第二产业产值及珍稀濒危物种分布情况反映出流域复合生态系统对潜在污染风险的敏感程度。评价结果表明:牡丹江市辖区是流域内受
沿岸水环境潜在污染风险最严重的地区,长春市辖区、伊春市辖区与敦化市具有较低的水体缓冲能力和较高的生态系统敏感程度,吉林市辖区与七台河市辖区的污染风险源强,应通过加快污水处理研究、评估污染治理经济手段、创设产业准入机制及完备污染防治立法等多种途径进行风险的有效控制。
    (4)结合松花江流域沿岸土地利用与水环境污染的现状与问题,综合考虑社会安全、经济发展与生态环境三方面的因素,将综合指标法与熵权法相结合,划定流域水体保护与控制范围,以构建流域沿岸生态安全格局。流域保护带为河流最高水位线外38.5 ~ 64.4 m,而控制带设定在河流最高水位线外约2~ 3 km。三个子流域的平均带宽有所差异,且主要影响因子也不相同,但各子流域上游地区的保护与控制带一般较宽。为明确不同河段的保护级别,将流域内全部河段划分为一般河段、敏感河段与重点保护河段,并对岸带建设提出具体建议。
    (5)本研究还以流域沿岸土地利用变化研究为基础,以沿岸水环境污染潜在风险评价结果为指导,提出针对流域复合生态系统可持续发展的综合管理对策。首先是要建设重点生态工程,包括污染控制工程、产业发展工程和生态建设工程;其次是平衡资源利用与保护,主要是明确流域的环境承载力,实现水资源、土地资源的优化配置;最后是完善流域管理机制,不仅要提升区域的可持续发展能力,而且要提高各方的综合管理水平。
英文摘要:       As a special area supporting frequent exchange of materials and energy between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, the riverside land has gained increasing attention for its eco-environment change and resource use. In recent years, with the regional population growth and economic development, both the demand for natural resources and quantity of discharged pollutant have arisen sharply, leading to the growing conflict between protection and development of land and water resources.Located in the northern part of the Northeast China, the Songhua River Basin is one of China's seven major river basins, which is not only the important industrial and agricultural bases, but also the significant ecological security defense in the Northeast China. In this context, starting from the integrated perspective on the whole basin, the study determined the extent and direction of riverside land use change and revealed the main factors. Meanwhile, the water environment risk was evaluated by combining ecological threat assessment and potential risk identification. And the risk prevention recommendations were put forward as well.
     Furthermore, in order to coordinate relationship between socio-economic development and environmental protection, a reasonable riverside ecological security pattern was conducted. Besides, integrated management countermeasures were provided for the sustainable development of the ecosystem in the Songhua River Basin. The main contents and conclusions of this study are as follows.
    (1) Focused on the rivers of 3rd-Level and higher, we studied the riverside land use patterns and their changes within 500 m, 1000 m and 2000 m respectively in 2000, 2005 and 2010. And taking sub-basins as units, the composition of riverside ecosystem in different regions were analyzed. It was found that though differed the riverside land use patterns within varying widths, all of them were forest land, farmland and wetlands-based. And with the increasing distance from the rivers, the degree of human interference increased as well. From the perspective of time series, the continuous shrinkage of wetlands in the riverside land within the width of 2000 m needed to be paid more attention. In the range of 0 ~ 500 m, the pattern of farmland-based, forest land and wetlands-supplemented was significant, while in the ranges of 500 ~ 1000 m and 1000 ~ 2000 m, the land use pattern changed into farmland-based, forest land-supplemented. On top of that, combined with the water quality levels of each river in different years, the relationship between patterns of riverside land use within different widths and water quality was analyzed, and it was concluded that there was a certain linkage between the both. In addition, the main factors to drive the riverside land use change in the basin were demonstrated to be population growth, economy development, urbanization process, and regional policy.
    (2) The Songhua River Basin was divided into 204 assessment units by combining watershed and administrative boundaries. Ten threat factors of human disturbances were identified from their significant influence on the river ecosystem. We used a modified Ecological Threat Index (ETI) to synthetically evaluate the ecological security of the basin. The results show that as the center of the plain area,the capital cities of Changchun and Harbin had the highest level of threat, as did the municipal districts of prefecture-level cities; mountainous areas close to the boundary of the basin suffered least. Individual factors related to urbanization,agricultural development and artificial facility construction presented different characteristic of spatial distribution. To further study the impact of factors on the integrated ETI, we calculated the ETIs after each individual factor was removed.
This demonstrated that the removal of any individual factor did not significantly influence the spatial pattern of the integrated ETI in the Songhua River Basin. Therefore, when conducting ecological security assessments at large scales,appropriately simplifying the evaluation factors would not have a large impact on the results. This method could provide effective assessments from readily available data where material is limited.
      (3) According to the List of National Key Monitored Enterprises Generating Wastewater in 2012, 45 key enterprises distributed within 1 km from the rivers were identified as potential sources of contamination. The risk levels of these sources were assessed by calculating the annual volume of wastewater generated by the enterprises and estimated the buffering capacity of the local waters by analyzing the background water quality. The sensitivity of the social-economic-natural complex ecosystem to potential water contamination was also evaluated by investigating the total population of the districts, the secondary industrial outputs of the districts, and the distribution ranges of rare and endangered species. The results manifested that Mudanjiang City suffered the most serious contamination risk; Changchun City, Yichun City and Dunhua City showed the low buffering capacity of the local waters, and the high sensitivity to potential water contamination; Owing to the large volume
of wastewater generated annually, Jilin City and Qitaihe City had higher sensitivity of their social and economic ecosystems. Thus, it was necessary to improve the efficiency of wastewater treatments, to assess the economic means of pollution control, to establish the industrial entry mechanism, and to perfect the pollution prevention and control legislation.
      (4) Depending on the current situation and problems of riverside land use in the Songhua River Basin, considering the factors in three aspects as social safety, economic development and ecological environment, using comprehensive index method with entropy method, the protection and control zones of the basin were delineated for designing the riverside ecological security pattern. Consequently, the protection zones of the basin were set 38.5 ~ 64.4 m outer the highest water line of rivers, while the control zones were around 2 ~ 3 km outer. The average widths of the three sub-basins varied as well as the main influencing factors, but the widths of the protection and control zones in the upstream areas of each sub-basin were generally wider. To determine the protection level of different rivers, all the rivers
in the entire basin were divided into general river, sensitive river and key protective river, with specific advice for zone construction.
      (5) Taking the riverside land use change analysis as the basis, and making the potential risk evaluation of riverside water pollution as a guide, integrated management countermeasures for sustainable development of the complex ecosystem in the Songhua River Basin were proposed. Firstly, key ecological protects are ought to be established, including pollution control projects, industrial development projects and ecological construction projects. The second is to balance utilization and conservation of the resources, focusing on determining the environmental carrying capacity of basins for optimizing the allocation of land resource and water resource. Finally, to perfect the watershed management mechanism is not only to enhance the regional capacity for sustainable development, but also to improve the overall management of various parties.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/36961
Appears in Collections:城市与区域生态国家重点实验室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
谭立波. 松花江流域沿岸土地利用变化与水环境风险管理研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2016.
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