中国科学院生态环境研究中心机构知识库
Advanced  
RCEES OpenIR  > 城市与区域生态国家重点实验室  > 学位论文
题名: 北京东灵山土壤动物多样性海拔格局研究
作者: 徐国瑞
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2016-05
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 马克明
关键词: 海拔样带,土壤动物,群落结构,生物多样性,相对多度分布,粒径谱 ; elevational gradient transect, soil invertebrates, community structure, biodiversity, relative abundance distribution, density-body mass relationship
其他题名: Elevational biodiversity patterns of soil invertebrates in Dongling Mountain, Beijing
学位专业: 生态学
中文摘要:       生物多样性分布及其维持机制是生态学领域的经典问题,海拔梯度为相关研究提供了理想的研究平台。以往的生物多样性海拔格局研究主要集中于地上生物类群,土壤动物多样性的海拔分布研究亟待开展。同时,土壤动物是生态系统中重要的生物组分,在生物地球化学循环和生态系统功能过程中发挥着重要作用,其群落结构和功能关系研究也亟待刻画。相关研究对于系统认识土壤动物群落结构及其多样性如何响应环境变化具有重要意义。
      本研究选择北京东灵山地区典型的辽东栎林和亚高山草甸生态系统为对象,设置海拔梯度样带(包括由10个山体构成的森林样带和林线以上的草甸样带),在土壤动物群落组成、生物及非生物因子和季节变化采样调查的基础上,应用多种统计分析和模型方法,研究了土壤动物沿海拔梯度的群落组成、多样性及多度分布、环境影响机制、以及土壤动物粒径谱海拔分布及其背景依赖性。得出如下主要结论:
      (1)季节调查共捕获52673只土壤动物,隶属于3门11纲30目142科,其中弹尾目(Collembola,35.667%)、寄螨目(Parasitiformes,28.880%)以及真螨目(Acariformes,18.915%)是优势类群。土壤动物各功能群的个体数由多到少依次为:杂食者、腐食者、捕食者、植食者,但是类群数以植食者最多,其次是捕食者、杂食者以及腐食者。8月份土壤动物群落组成的环境解释最高。
      (2)土壤动物群落整体及各个取食功能群多样性均呈“钟形”分布格局;林线上下的土壤动物的多样性格局不同,林线以下土壤动物呈“钟形”分布而林线以上呈单调下降或无格局;不同功能群之间的多样性及生物量格局在森林样带中紧密相关,而在草甸中相关性较弱。气候因素取代生产力因素成为决定凋落物层土壤动物以及杂食者、捕食者、腐食者多样性海拔格局的主导因素。林线上下影响土壤动物群落分布的机制可能不同。
      (3)凋落物层土壤动物的优势类群多样性与草本植物丰富度负相关,稀有类群多样性主要与灌木优势种多样性负相关。灌木根围土居土壤动物的稀有类群多样性与灌木优势种多样性及丰富度正相关。森林样带中,凋落物层土壤动物β多样性与草本植物β多样性(r = 0.32)和乔木β多样性(r = 0.31)均显著正相关(只考虑有无)。草甸样带中,土壤动物与植物β多样性不相关。
      (4)海拔、生态系统类型和多度指标选择并未影响表居土壤动物整体的群落构建过程,但影响表居土壤动物的不同取食功能群的多度分布。
      (5)土壤动物粒径谱斜率在生长季与休眠季呈现出相反的海拔格局,较大土壤动物个体在生长季获利更多而较小土壤动物在休眠季获利更多。土壤动物粒径谱的影响因素具有背景依赖性,温度是土壤动物粒径谱的根本驱动因素,凋落物的质量与数量分别在生长季与休眠季起作用。
      概括而言,本研究对多类群土壤动物以及不同功能类群土壤动物的丰富度、多度以及生物量开展了跨林线的海拔格局研究;详尽研究了植物-土壤动物多样性在海拔梯度上的耦合关系;判断了海拔、生态系统类型以及多度表征指标对于土壤动物整体及不同功能群相对多度分布的影响;同时在不同时间背景下探讨土壤动物粒径谱对于海拔的响应,并区分了温度和食物资源的可获得性对于土壤动物粒径谱的相对重要性。研究结果对于系统认识土壤动物群落结构及其多样性如何响应环境变化具有重要意义。
英文摘要:       Study of the diversity distribution and the underlying mechanisms has been a central theme in ecological research. Elevational gradients serve as useful systems for exploring how biotas respond to environmental changes. Former studies mainly focus on the aboveground biotas, while elevational biodiversity of soil biota, especially for soil invertebrates, has been severely understudied. Soil invertebrates are important biological components of ecosystem and contribute significantly to the biogeochemical cycling and ecosystem function. Furthermore, how community structure of soil invertebrates links to function remain far from clear. Relvant study is crucial to understand how soil invertebrates community structure and biodiversity respond to environmental changes systematically.
      In this sdudy, we choosed a typical Quercus wutaishansea forest and a subalpine meadow ecosystem as the study system. Transects along an elevational gradient were set up (including 10 forest montane transects below treeline and meadow transects above treeline). Based on the investigation of the community composition, biotic, and abiotic environmental variables in four seasons, we applied a variety of statistical analysis and modeling methods to study the community structure, biodiversity, abundance distribution, underlying environmental mechnisms, the pattern and context dependency of body-size spectra in soil invertebrates along with elevation. The main conclusions are drawn as follows:
      In four different seasons, we obtained 52,673 individuals in 87 families across 30 orders, which subordinate to 11 classes in 3 phylum. Collembola, Parasiformes, and Acariformes (35.667%, 28.880%, 18.915%, respectively, of the total individuals) were the dominant orders. In descending order, the number of individuals in different feeding groups were omnivores, saprozoic, predators, and phytophage, respectively. However, there were most families in phytophage and least families in omnivores. The family number in predators was only a little more than that in saprozoic. Community structure of soil invertebrates was explained most in August.
       Along the whole elevational gradient, the diversity of soil invertebrates and each feeding group all showed “hump-shaped” patterns. However, elevational patterns of soil invertebrates shifted from hump-shaped below the treeline to monotonously decreasing patterns or no patterns above the treeline with increasing elevation. Feeding groups were closely related with each other in forest, which were not true in meadow. Climate replaced productivity as the determinant factor for the diversity patterns of litter-dwelling invertebrates and most feeding groups (omnivores, saprozoic, and predators) across treeline with vegetation shifts induced by increasing elevation. These results indicate that the underlying processes for soil invertebrates below- and above- treeline are probably different.
      Dominant diversity of litter-dwelling invertebrates was negatively related with the richness of herbaceous plant, while rare diversity was negatively related with dominant diversity of shrubs. Rare diversity of soil-dwelling invertebrates in the rhizosphere of shrubs was correlated with the dominant diversity and richness of shrubs. In forest transects, the beta-sim (only consider the present-absence data) diversity of litter-dwelling invertebrates was positively related with both herbaceous and woody plant significantly. In meadow, no correlations of beta diversity existed between plant and soil invertebrates.
      Elevation, ecosystem type, and the selection of indicators changed the abundance pattern of different feeding groups in litter-dwelling invertebrates, but this was not true in the whole community of litter-dwelling invertebrates.
       We found a contrasting pattern of BSS relationships in litter invertebrate communities along an elevational gradient across the two seasons, indicating that larger invertebrates benefit more in the growing season compared with the smaller ones, which benefit more in the dormant season. The drivers of the BSS relationship were context dependent in that temperature was a fundamental driver for the dynamics of body size distributions across seasons while the litter impact varied with the seasons in quality and quantity.
      In summary, we studied the diversity and biomass elevational patterns of soil invertebrates and different feeding groups incorporating a broader range of underground fauna across treeline. The diversity associations of plant-soil invertebrates along the elevational gradient were also analyzed in a detailed manner. In addition, we decided whether elevation, ecosystem type and the selection of indicators change the abundance distribution patterns of the whole community and different feeding groups in litter-dwelling invertebrates. We also explored the context dependency of body-size spectra in soil invertebrates and differentiate the relative importance of temperature and resource availability in different
have important implications for a systematically understanding of how community structure and diversity of soil invertebrates respond to environmental changes.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/37030
Appears in Collections:城市与区域生态国家重点实验室_学位论文

Files in This Item:
File Name/ File Size Content Type Version Access License
徐国瑞--北京东灵山土壤动物多样性海拔格局研究.pdf(3755KB)学位论文--限制开放 联系获取全文

Recommended Citation:
徐国瑞. 北京东灵山土壤动物多样性海拔格局研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2016.
Service
Recommend this item
Sava as my favorate item
Show this item's statistics
Export Endnote File
Google Scholar
Similar articles in Google Scholar
[徐国瑞]'s Articles
CSDL cross search
Similar articles in CSDL Cross Search
[徐国瑞]‘s Articles
Related Copyright Policies
Null
Social Bookmarking
Add to CiteULike Add to Connotea Add to Del.icio.us Add to Digg Add to Reddit
所有评论 (0)
暂无评论
 
评注功能仅针对注册用户开放,请您登录
您对该条目有什么异议,请填写以下表单,管理员会尽快联系您。
内 容:
Email:  *
单位:
验证码:   刷新
您在IR的使用过程中有什么好的想法或者建议可以反馈给我们。
标 题:
 *
内 容:
Email:  *
验证码:   刷新

Items in IR are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.

 

 

Valid XHTML 1.0!
Copyright © 2007-2017  中国科学院生态环境研究中心 - Feedback
Powered by CSpace