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题名: 基于能量分配理论的稀有鮈鲫种群生态风险评价
作者: 张慧
学位类别: 博士后
答辩日期: 2016-06
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 王子健
关键词: 种群安全浓度阈值,能量分配,稀有鮈鲫,生物毒性测试
其他题名: Population-level Ecological Risk Assessment on the Basis of Energy Allocation Theory: Cased by Chinese rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus)
学位专业: 环境科学
中文摘要:       近年来,随着工农业的发展,水污染问题日益突出,生物栖息地遭到严重破坏,水生生物多样性锐减。由于生物在个体和种群水平上的响应机制存在很大差别,即使个体上是安全的,也不一定保证种群安全。因此,制定合理的水生生物种群水平的环境基准,确定合适的生物种群危害浓度阈值,对水生生物的保护至关重要。
      为了客观地对我国水生生物种群进行合理保护,本研究以我国本土特有鱼类稀有鮈鲫为研究对象,以标准毒性实验为基础,同时开展稀有鮈鲫在重金属镉暴露下的全生命周期毒性实验及不同生命阶段毒性实验;应用能量分配模型从生物能量代谢角度建立了稀有鮈鲫存活、生长、繁殖的能量分配模型;最终得到了基于种群水平的稀有鮈鲫种群安全浓度阈值,以期为水环境的化学物质风险管理提供科学依据和数据支持。全文主要成果如下:
    (1) 稀有鮈鲫的全生命周期毒性效应
    长期低剂量镉暴露下稀有鮈鲫连续暴露三代,世代存活、生长、繁殖的毒性效应随世代增加其下降趋势更明显。存活率从F1 代的36%(40 μg/L)到F2 代的26.7%(40 μg/L)到F3 代的42%(0.4 μg/L),大于0.4 μg/L(最低暴露组)实验鱼已无法存活。体重较体长下降幅度更大。亲鱼繁殖力在镉浓度分别为F1 代40 μg/L 时,F2 代4 μg/L 时,F3 代0.4 μg/L时,表现出显著的下降趋势。
     (2) 稀有鮈鲫的部分生命阶段毒性效应
     重金属镉短期暴露下,稀有鮈鲫幼鱼存活、体长、体重的无效应浓度均为50 μg/L;成鱼体重的无效应浓度为125 μg/L;成鱼繁殖力、受精卵的受精率、孵化率均在浓度为40 μg/L时与空白组相比出现显著差异,无效应浓度值为4 μg/L。
    (3) 稀有鮈鲫的能量分配作用模式
     根据能量分配理论建立了不同作用模式下稀有鮈鲫存活、生长、繁殖的能量分配模型;分别模拟了稀有鮈鲫PLC 和FLC 暴露模式下的无效应浓度及ECx 值。结果表明:其存活无效应浓度值分别为125 μg/L 和15.95 μg/L;幼鱼短期暴露生长作用模式属于Growth 或assimilation 形式,其体重、体长的无效应浓度值分别为25.00-33.73 μg/L 和18.25-24.23 μg/L; 成鱼短期暴露的生长函数属于maintenance 模式,体重、体长的无效应浓度值分别为123.8μg/L 和1488 μg/L;成鱼PLC 和FLC 暴露的无效应浓度值分别在2.75-4.59 μg/L 和0.353-0.391 μg/L 之间。
    (4) 稀有鮈鲫种群风险阈值的确定
    利用经典种群模型方法和能量分配模型方法,分别建立了重金属镉暴露下稀有鮈鲫种群射影矩阵;计算获得了重金属镉毒性作用下不同暴露模式、不同模型方法的稀有鮈鲫种群安全浓度阈值。结果表明:以经典种群模型方法得到的稀有鮈鲫种群安全浓度阈值分别为:CFLC= 5.160 μg/L,CPLC= 101.9 μg/L;能量分配不同作用模式(maintenance、assimilation 和growth)下的稀有鮈鲫种群安全浓度阈值分别为:CFLC = 6.539 μg/L,6.223 μg/L,6.453μg/L;CPLC = 112.9 μg/L,122.2 μg/L,129.7 μg/L。
英文摘要:     In recent years, water has becoming seriously polluted with the development of industry
and agriculture, which damage the habitat of aquatic organism, and reduce the biodiversity.For the differences of mechanism of organism between individual level and population level, the safety of individuals is no guarantee of safety of organism on population level. Thus, one of the most vital issues of chemical ecological risk management is to extrapolate toxic effects on individuals to the population level, and establish environmental criteria on population level.
    For the purpose of presenting a reasonable measure for endemic species protection, partial life cycle (PLC) toxicity test with combination of full life cycle (FLC) test were conducted with Chinese rare minnow. The dynamic energy budget (DEB) model for survival, growth, and
reproduction processes were established for specific eco-physiological traits of that fish.
Moreover, population projection matrix model was set up to establish the population-level
environmental criteria of Chinese rare minnow. The successive case study on Chinese rare
minnow is expected to enhance therationality of population-level risk assessment of chemicals for aquatic organisms. The main accomplishments are follows:
(1) Toxicity effect of full life cycle exposure
The significant downtrends of survival, growth, and reproduction were observed among
successive generations. The survival rates descended from 36% (40 μg/L) of F1 generation, and 26.7% (40 μg/L)of F2 generation to 42% (0.4 μg/L) of F3generation. Survivors of F3 generation cannot even found at the concentration above 40 μg/L. Compared to the total length, the weight was found more sensitive to the toxicity of cadmium among generations. The significant downtrends of fecundity were observed at the concentration of 40 μg/L on F1 generation, 4 μg/L on F2 generation, and 0.4 μg/L on F3 generation.
(2) Toxicity effect of partial life cycle exposure
    The no effect concentrations (NEC) values for survival, length and weight of juvenile was
50 μg/L. The NECs for and weight of adults were 125 μg/L. The significant differences were
found on the fecundity, fertility, and haching success at the cadimiun concentration of 40 μg/L,and the corresponding NEC value was 4 μg/L.
    (3) Mode of actions of energy allocation of Chinese rare minnow
The DEB model of Chinese rare minnow were established for survival, growth, and reproduction processes, and the corresponding NECs on PLC and FLC pattern were obtained. The results showed that the NECs for survival were 125 μg/L and 15.95 μg/L, respectively. The NECs for weight and lengthof juvenile ranges 25.00-33.73 μg/L and 18.25-24.23 μg/L, respectively. The values of adults were 123.8 μg/L and 1488 μg/L, respectively. The NEC for adult reproduction ranges 2.75-4.59 μg/L and 0.353-0.391 μg/L forPLC and FLC pattern, respectively.
(4) Establishment of population-level concentration threshold
    The population matrix of Chinese rare minnow under cadmium exposure was established on the basis of the classical Leslie modeling method and energy allocation model. The
population-level environmental threshold of Chinese rare minnow was obtained by various
patterns of exposure and mode of actions. The population-level environmental thresholds on the basis of classical Leslie modeling method were 5.160 μg/L and 101.9 μg/L for FLC and PLC exposure patterns, respectively. The population-level concentration thresholds on the basis of energy allocation model were 6.539, 6.223, 6.453 μg/L, and 112.9, 122.2, 129.7 μg/L for FLC and PLC exposure patterns with the mode of action of maintenance, assimilation,  and growth, respectively.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/37047
Appears in Collections:环境水质学国家重点实验室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
张慧. 基于能量分配理论的稀有鮈鲫种群生态风险评价[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2016.
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