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题名: 嗜热脱硫菌处理含SO2 废气的机制 及种群演替特征研究
作者: 张婧赢
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2016-05
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 刘俊新 ; 李琳
关键词: 含SO2 废气,嗜热脱硫菌,生物反应器,微生物分析,机制 ; off-gas containing SO2, thermophilic desulfurizing bacteria, bioreactor, microorganism analysis,mechanism
其他题名: The desulfurization mechanism and microbial characteristics of thermophilic desulfurizing bacteria for SO2 removal
学位专业: 环境工程
中文摘要:       随着社会和经济的发展,废气的排放和污染问题日益严重。在化石燃料燃烧、污泥焚烧等过程中会产生大量的带有一定温度的含硫废气,这些废气的排放严重威胁着生态环境和人类健康。在各类废气处理方法中,生物法因其效率高、设备简单、投资少、易于管理、无二次污染等优点,成为处理废气的首选。针对工业排放的含硫废气普遍具有较高温度的特点,本研究以SO2 为目标污染物,培养驯化嗜热脱硫菌、筛选填料,构建处理含SO2 废气的嗜热脱硫菌的生物体系,考察嗜热脱硫菌生物反应器的运行效果及影响因素,分析反应器内微生物的种群演替特征,解析嗜热脱硫菌处理含SO2 废气的机制,为嗜热菌处理含硫废气提供科学
数据及理论依据。主要研究结果如下:
    (1)以含硫物质为底物,将微生物在一定温度下驯化培养,获得嗜热脱硫菌群。通过对比试验,研究驯化后微生物的脱硫性能。运用扫描电镜、X-射线衍射等方法,分析比较12 种填料的表面形态、物质组成、机械性能等,建立填料的筛选方法。将驯化的嗜热脱硫菌与筛选的填料按一定的比例和方法混合,构建处理含SO2 废气的嗜热脱硫菌群的生物体系。
    (2)考察了嗜热脱硫菌生物反应器对SO2 的处理效果及影响因素。经过长期稳定运行,反应器能够有效去除SO2,平均去除率为93.10%,最大去除能力为50.67g/m3·h。填料含水率对SO2 的去除率影响较大,当含水率高于80%时,SO2去除率可达到99%以上。改变含水率,对微生物的群落结构有影响。通过对比不同的喷淋量和喷淋时间,制定了对嗜热脱硫菌生物反应器进行每天喷淋500mL的最佳喷淋方案。SO2 的氧化产物主要为SO42-。
    (3)定期采集微生物样品,采用分子生物学方法分析微生物的种群特征,检测结果显示:启动期内,微生物的多样性降低。随着运行时间的延长,细菌及硫细菌的数量逐渐增加。反应器运行8 个月后,填料上及淋洗液内的细菌的数量分别为2.56×1010 CFU/mL 和5.54×107 CFU/mL,硫细菌比例较高。微生物多样性随运行时间的增加逐渐增加,功能菌群包括Bacillus sp. 、Brevibacillus sp. 、Aneurinibacillus sp. 、Acinetobacter sp. 、Pseudomonas sp. 、Paenibacillus sp. 、Ralstonia sp.,大部分为嗜热脱硫菌,是去除SO2 的功能菌。这些菌经扩大应用在示范工程的生物滤塔内,对SO2 的脱除依然发挥作用。
    (4)探索嗜热脱硫菌降解SO2 的机制,研究结果显示:在嗜热脱硫菌生物反应器内存在气、液、固三相,填料的吸附、水的吸收及微生物的去除三方面作用共同完成了SO2 的净化,其中,微生物的去除占主导作用。水分阻碍SO2 的传质,同时影响填料内部氧气的分布状态。当填料含水率高于60%时,填料中心的氧浓度低于填料表面,填料内部呈现出好氧—缺氧—好氧的状态;含水率低于40%时,填料内氧气分布较均匀,表面与中心的氧浓度差异不大。填料内部氧的分布不均匀导致微生物的群落结构发生相应地变化,好氧微生物多存在于填料表面,填料中心出现兼性厌氧菌。反应机制的探索为控制及优化反应器运行提供了理论基础。
英文摘要:       With the social and economic development, the pollution caused by off-gas emission has been an increasingly serious problem. During the process of fossil fuels combustion and sludge incineration, a large amount of off-gas containing sulfur compounds with high temperature would be generated which may bring out serious threat to ecological environment and human health. Compared with conventional physical–chemical methods, biological technologies are more widely applied to purify off-gas because of their high efficiency, cost effectiveness, convenient operation, and small footprint. In general, sulfur-containing off-gas produced from industry was always with high temperature. In present study, SO2 was used as a target compound. The thermophilic desulfurizing biological system for SO2 removal was built through thermophilic desulfurizing bacteria acclimation and packing materials selection. The performance and influence factors of the thermophilic desulfurizing bioreactor, the microbial population formed in the bioreactor and the reaction mechanism of SO2 removal by thermophilic desulfurizing bacteria were investigated to provide scientific data and theoretical basis for thermophilic bacteria treating off-gas with high temperature. The main results are as follows:
      (1) The thermophilic desulfurizing bacteria were acclimated in a culture medium containing sulfur compounds at a certain temperature. After acclimation, the thermophilic desulfurizing bacteria provide the capability of desulfurization. The surface morphology, composition, mechanical property and price of twenlve packing materials were investigated, and their characters were selected via model building. The packing material was attached by thermophilic desulfurizing bacteria which completed the establishment of the thermophilic desulfurizing biological system for SO2 removal.
      (2) The performance and influence factors of the thermophilic desulfurizing bioreactor were investigated. After a long time operation, the bioreactor can purify SO2 efficiently with an average removal efficiency of 93.10% and a maximal removal capacity of 50.67g/m3·h. Removal efficiency of the bioreactor was largely influenced by the water content of packing material. Over 99% of SO2 removal efficiency can be achieved when the water content is above 80%. The microbial population was also influenced by the water content of packing material. The best irrigation strategy for the thermophilic desulfurizing bioreactor was: irrigating 500 mL everyday. The product of SO2 oxidation was SO42−.
      (3) The microbial samples were collected periodically for microbial population analysis using molecular biological method. The results showed that the microbial diversity was decreasing during the start-up period. Temporal variation of microbial population occurred during the long-term operation of the biofilter. The amount of bacteria and sulfur bacteria existed in the packing material and leacheate increased with operation time. The amount of bacteria in the packing material and leacheate were 2.56×1010 CFU/mL and 5.54×107 CFU/mL, respectively. Desulfurizing and thermophilic bacteria were abundant in the bioreactor and the functional microorganisms concluding Bacillus sp., Brevibacillus sp., Aneurinibacillus sp.,Acinetobacter sp., Pseudomonas sp., Paenibacillus sp., Ralstonia sp. These thermophilic desulfurizing bacteria were applied in a biofilter of the demonstration
project which still has a high desulfurization.
      (4) The desulfurization mechanism of SO2 removal by thermophilic desulfurizing bacteria was investigated, the results showed that the SO2 reduction in the biofilter column involved biodegradation, dissolution, and adsorption on the packing materials.Among these processes, microbial degradation played the most important role. The existence of water inhibited the transfer of SO2 and influenced the oxygen distribution in the packing material. When the water content was above 60%, the oxygen concentration in the center of the packing material was lower than that of the surface which presented an aerobic - anoxic - aerobic state in the packing material. The oxygen distribution became evenly when the water content was below 40%. The microbial population was also influenced by the water content of packing material.Facultative anaerobic microorganisms occurred in the center of the PUFC where the oxygen concentration was less than that of surface. The invastigation of desulfurization mechanism provides theoretical basis for the bioreactor optimization and control.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/37049
Appears in Collections:水污染控制技术研究室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
张婧赢. 嗜热脱硫菌处理含SO2 废气的机制 及种群演替特征研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2016.
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