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题名: 猪粪/污泥生物处理及土地利用过程中抗生素抗性基 因的归趋与控制
作者: 张俊亚
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2016-05
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 魏源送
关键词: 猪粪/污泥 ; Swine manure and sewage sludge ; 抗生素抗性基因 ; Antibiotic resistance genes ; 重金属抗性基因 ; Heavy metal resistance genes ; 生物处理 ; Bio-treatment ; 土地利用 ; Soil application
其他题名: Occurrence and control of antibiotic resistance genes during bio-treatment and land application of swine manure and sewage sludge
学位专业: 环境工程
中文摘要:       猪粪/污泥是抗生素抗性基因(Antibiotic resistance genes, ARGs)的重要蓄积库。生物处理和土地利用广泛应用于猪粪/污泥的处理与处置。本文开展了猪粪/污泥生物处理及土地利用全过程中ARGs 的归趋与控制研究,以便为控制猪粪/污泥中ARGs 及其在环境中的传播提供科学依据。
     本文研究了典型集约化养猪场中生猪不同生长阶段猪粪中ARGs 分布特征和排放量。结果表明,猪粪中含有ARGs、毒力因子(Virulence factors,VFs)、重金属抗性基因(Heavy metal resistance genes, MRGs)和水平转移元件(Mobile genetic elements, MGEs)。ARGs 排放量依次为育肥期>妊娠期>保育期>哺乳期,生猪保育期的VFs 和妊娠期的MGEs 排放量最大,且猪粪中ARGs 同MGEs 显著相关(p<0.05)。统计学分析结果表明,猪粪中微生物群落结构是ARGs 分布的主导因素。
      本文考察了猪粪堆肥产品在三种典型土壤(红土,黄土和黑土)利用过程的ARGs 归趋及其机制。结果表明,猪粪堆肥产品对不同土壤中抗生素抗性菌(Antibiotic resistance bacteria, ARBs)的影响不同,差异较大,且对不同土壤中微生物群落结构的影响显著不同。猪粪堆肥向三种土壤中引入了大量tetG、ermF 和tetX,但这些ARGs 随时间逐渐削减至对照(Control)水平。同对照相比,猪粪堆肥和无机肥料(NPK)的添加有助于削减土壤中ARGs 的丰度,但并未增加土壤中ARGs 的丰度风险。统计分析表明,微生物群落结构的演替同
各类土壤中ARGs 演替具有极强的显著正相关性(p<0.01)。
       本文研究了两种污泥厌氧生物处理(污泥和餐厨混合厌氧和基于微波预处理强化污泥厌氧)和两种污泥好氧处理(堆肥和生物干化)对ARGs 的削减效果。结果表明,污泥厌氧消化对ARGs 具有一定程度的富集作用,但基于微波预处理的污泥和餐厨混合厌氧消化,不仅能够强化污泥厌氧消化,而且削减了ARGs;同单相污泥厌氧消化相比,基于微波预处理的两级厌氧消化同时实现了厌氧消化的强化和ARGs 的削减。优化的曝气策略不仅强化了污泥生物干化效果,而且提高了ARGs 的削减效果;添加沸石粉不仅能够提高污泥堆肥的保氮效果,而且能够削减ARGs。统计学分析表明,微生物群落结构演替是影响污泥生物处理过程中ARGs 归趋的主导因素,依次是微生物群落结构>基因水平转移(HGT)>重金属选择压力。
      本文考察了污泥堆肥和污泥生物干化产品土地利用过程中ARGs 的归趋,结果表明,污泥堆肥的土地利用对三种土壤均带来了一定的风险,依次为黄土>红土>黑土;各种污泥堆肥产品对tetG 在三种土壤中均具有一定的富集作用,可将tetG 作为污泥堆肥影响土壤ARGs 的一个潜在指标。污泥生物干化产品的土地利用并没有增加红土和黑土中ARGs 的丰度,但对黄土中ereA 和ermB 的丰度有所增加。综合考虑污泥生物处理和土地利用全过程,污泥生物干化相对污泥堆肥具有一定的ARGs 削减优势。统计学分析表明,微生物群落结构的变
化同ARGs 的演替具有极强的显著相关性(p<0.01)。
      总之,从猪粪/污泥生物处理和土地利用全过程来看,微生物群落结构的演替是ARGs 归趋的主导因素,污泥和猪粪对最终土地利用中产生风险的ARGs也有显著区别,因土壤类型而异。
英文摘要:        As the major source of antibiotics and heavy metals in environment, animal manure and sewage sludge have become the two most important reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Biological treatment, like composting and anaerobic digestion, and subsequent land application are widely used for treatment and disposal of animal manure and sewage sludge. This study was to elucidate the fate of ARGs and its drivers during the total process of the bio-treatment and land application to provide support for the coordinated control of ARGs in environment.
      This study firstly investigated the occurrence of ARGs in pig manure of different stages to figure out the main contributors to the ARGs emission in the typical intensive pig farms. Results showed that there existed not only ARGs but also heavy metal resistance genes (MRGs), mobile genetic elements (MGEs) and virulence factors (VFs). The fattening was the main contributor for the ARGs emission following the order as the fattening>the pregnancy>the nursing>the suckling, while the nursing was the main contributor of the VFs emission and the pregnancy for MGEs emission. The factors concerned in this study including heavy metal selection, HGT, microbial community and VFs influenced the variation of ARGs in manure of different stages, while microbial community was the main driver for the variation through redundancy analysis (RDA) and partial RDA. Mantel test and procrustes analysis further elucidated the significant correlation between microbial community and ARGs variation.
      The land application of swine manure compost in three soil types in China (red earth, loess and black soil) was investigated to find out the fate of antibiotic resistance bacteria (ARBs) and ARGs in manure compost. Results showed that the land application of manure compost has different impacts on different ARBs and showed some risks in different soil types. Manure compost induced high levels of ARGs into the soil especially ermF, tetG and tetX, while these ARGs were reduced to the Control level or even below after D172 in different soil types, and the difference was significant between manure compost and Control or NPK concerning the ARGs evolution. However, manure compost did not add the ARGs risks in different soil types contrary to the ARBs evolution. Also, the manure compost influenced the evolution of microbial community significantly, and there existed significant correlation between microbial community changes and ARGs evolution.
      This study mainly focused on two anaerobic digestion processes (anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and food waste; anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge based on microwave pretreatment) and two aerobic processes (sludge composting and sludge bio-drying). Results showed that ARGs were enriched after sewage sludge anaerobic digestion, while they were reduced after anaerobic co-digestion with food waste along with the enhancement of anaerobic digestion. The two-stage sewage sludge anaerobic digestion based on microwave pretreament had some advantages on the control of ARGs along with the enhancement of anaerobic digestion. Sludge compost could enrich the ARGs, while ARGs were reduced through the addition of natural zeolite due to the reduction of conjugation and co-selection of heavy metals caused by natural zeolite along with the enhancement of maturity. Sludge bio-drying could be used to reduce the quantity of ARGs, and improved aeration strategy could further enhance both the ARGs reduction and sludge bio-drying efficiency. The results of a partial RDA, Mantel test and Procrustes analysis showed that the bacterial community was the main contributor to the changes in ARGs compared to MGEs and heavy metals. Network analysis determined the potential host bacteria for various ARGs and further confirmed our results.
      The products of sludge composting and bio-drying were applied in three soil types to find out the fate of ARBs and ARGs. Sludge compost did some ARGs level risks in these soil types following the order of loess, red earth and black soil. The tetG was enriched in these soil types, and might be used as the biomarker for the pollution of sewage sludge compost. Different sludge composts differed in different soil types. Sludge bio-drying product did not make risk in these soil types except ereA and ermB in loess, and sludge bio-drying and subsequent land application seemed to be the potential way for the reuse of sewage sludge concerning the ARGs risks. Also the evolution of microbial community has significant correlation with the changes of ARGs during the land application of sludge compost and sludge bio-drying product.
       In summary, evolution of microbial community was the main driver for the changes of ARGs during the bio-treatment and land application of swine manure and sewage sludge, and the ARGs evolution was quite distinct between swine manure and sewage sludge. The role of soil type on the ARGs evolution in swine manure and sewage sludge was also important and should be emphasized during the land application.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/37050
Appears in Collections:水污染控制技术研究室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
张俊亚. 猪粪/污泥生物处理及土地利用过程中抗生素抗性基 因的归趋与控制[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2016.
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