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题名: 中国沿海湿地景观变化对水鸟栖息地适宜性 的影响研究
作者: 张强
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2016-05
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 马克明
关键词: 停歇点湿地,景观格局,迁徙水鸟,栖息地适宜性,东亚-澳大利西亚迁飞路线 ; stopover wetland, landscape pattern, migratory waterbirds, habitat suitability, EAAF
其他题名: Impact of landscape change on waterbird habitat suitability in seashore wetlands, China
学位专业: 生态学
中文摘要:       湿地是众多迁徙水鸟的繁殖地、越冬地和迁徙停歇地,对水鸟迁徙具有重要意义。停歇点湿地在整个迁飞网络中起到中继站和食物补给地的作用,栖息地适宜性下降将直接影响水鸟成功迁徙,而迁飞路线上各停歇点之间栖息地适宜性的匹配性下降将使得某些停歇点成为迁徙瓶颈。中国东部沿海是东亚-澳大利西亚迁飞网络(EAAF)的重要组成部分,近几十年中国候鸟迁徙东线途经地区的社会经济发展迅速,湿地及其周边土地利用变化剧烈,导致主要水鸟停歇点的栖息地适宜性产生不同程度的下降。本研究选取中国沿海候鸟迁徙东线上3个主要停歇地(辽河口、黄河三角洲和盐城),基于多时段遥感影像数据,采用多种统计分析和模型方法,研究迁飞路线上湿地景观变化对主要水鸟栖息地适宜性的影响,探讨城市化驱动因素的作用机制,得出如下主要结论:
      1. 单个停歇点湿地的长期景观变化分析表明,斑块类型和形状共同影响水鸟栖息地的适宜性和分布。斑块类型的影响主要与不同水鸟栖息地需求有关,斑块形状的影响则主要与水鸟体型大小有关。
      2. 快速城市化是导致水鸟栖息地退化的重要驱动因子,城市化对水鸟栖息的影响程度因水鸟敏感性而差异。对大型水鸟主要表现为栖息地丧失,对小型水鸟则主要表现为栖息地退化。无论游禽还是涉禽,城市化对水鸟的影响始终大鸟大于小鸟。
      3. 中国东部沿海湿地区域土地利用变化对 “东亚-澳大利西亚”(EAAF)迁飞路线上水鸟栖息地分布产生剧烈影响,各类天然湿地向人工湿地及生产建设用地的转化是造成主要水鸟栖息地退化的主要原因。
       4. 三个停歇点湿地间水鸟种群数量的大小和变化具有显著差异,辽河口湿地和盐城湿地可能在水鸟迁飞路线上产生瓶颈效应,未来中国沿海湿地和候鸟保护策略制定过程中应予以特别关注。
英文摘要:        Wetlands are important breeding and wintering areas as well as stopovers for numerous migratory waterfowl species and of great significance in the process of their migration. They always act as rest or refuge areas and the habitat suitability changing would impact on the successful migration of waterbirds. However, the mismatches of habitat suitability among stopover wetlands along the flyway would make some sites to be bottle neck in the birds’ migration. The east coasts of China are important parts of the East Asia-Australasia Flyway (EAAF). In recent decades, many areas which located on the eastern line for migrants in china are experiencing drastic socio-economic developments and intense land use changing has occurred in and around wetlands. As a result, the habitat suitability of stopover wetlands for main waterbird species declined at a different extent. In this study, we carried out our work mainly in three major stopover wetlands (Liaohe Estuarine Wetland, Yellow River Delta Wetland and Yancheng Coastal Wetland). Based on the multi-temporal remote sensing images, we investigated the impacts of landscape changes on habitat suitability of typical waterbirds in the wetlands which located on the flyway through statistical and modeling methods. Besides, we also probed into the effects of driving factors like urbanization and so on. The main conclusions as follows:
       1. The effects of landscape change on waterbird habitats were analyzed in a single stopover wetland at large spatial-temporal scale. Both types and spatial characteristics of patches contributed to the suitability and distribution of waterbird habitats. For different populations, the influences of patch type often related to the habitat requirements of birds while the spatial characteristics mainly connected to the body size.
      2. Rapid urbanization was an important driver for the degradation of waterbird habitats. The influence extent of urbanization on waterbird habitats mainly depended on the sensitivities of different populations. The habitat loss mostly tended to take place for larger birds while habitat degradation for the smaller ones. Larger birds were influenced by urbanization greater than the smaller ones regardless of waders or swimmers.
      3. In East China, land use changes of coastal wetlands had great impacts on the habitat changes of waterbird, which migrate along the East Asia-Australasia Flyway III (EAAF). The degradation of waterbird habitats were mainly caused by a variety of natural wetland types converted to artificial wetlands or farmland & construction lands.
       4. There was a significant difference in the population size among three stopover wetlands. Liaohe Estuarine Wetland and Yancheng Coastal Wetland would be bottlenecks to waterbird populations on their flyway. These areas need special focus in formulating the conservation strategies for waterbird populations and wetlands in future.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/37053
Appears in Collections:城市与区域生态国家重点实验室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
张强. 中国沿海湿地景观变化对水鸟栖息地适宜性 的影响研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2016.
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