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题名: 农作物秸秆厌氧发酵及其剩余物资源化工程技术研究
作者: 步天达1
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 2017-05
授予单位: 中国科学院生态环境研究中心
授予地点: 北京
导师: 陈 灏
关键词: 农作物秸秆,预处理,厌氧发酵,好氧堆肥,过滤 ; Crop Straw, Pretreatment, Anaerobic Digestion, Composting, Filtration
其他题名: Study on the Resource Utilization Engineering and Technology of Crop Stalks and Their Anaerobic Digestates
学位专业: 环境工程
中文摘要: 我国每年产生大量农业秸秆,各地在积极探索将秸秆资源化、能源化利用的有效途径,其中厌氧发酵技术可以将生物质原料转化为清洁能源而受到广泛应用。但秸秆发酵效率有待进一步提高,发酵剩余物的无害化处理和资源化利用也成为制约厌氧发酵技术推广的瓶颈性问题,适用于农村地区小型化的处理设备的研发是解决这一难题的关键。 本课题将秸秆分不同部位分别预处理以提高厌氧发酵沼气产率。部分秸秆作为生物滤料过滤发酵剩余物,完成沼渣沼液分离。秸秆滤料与其截留的沼渣进行高温好氧堆肥制作有机肥料,沼液经A/O-MBR处理作为叶面肥使用,并进行了关键设备的研发,使上述工艺在技术上可行。主要研究结果如下: 1) 秸秆厌氧发酵研究。利用多种方式对玉米秸秆不同部位(叶片、茎皮、茎髓、玉米芯)进行预处理,分别用于厌氧发酵,根据发酵沼气产量确定适宜不同部位的预处理方式。结果表明:秸秆茎髓采用10%的盐酸处理,叶片、玉米芯采用10%的氨水处理,茎皮不处理时,与秸秆全株经过盐酸处理和氨水处理相比产气量均提高了6.7%,较秸秆全株不预处理沼气产量可提高14%,达到670ml/g VS。 2) 发酵剩余物资源化利用。将秸秆与发酵沼渣进行反应器堆肥试验,考察调理剂、粒径、含水率、通风量的影响,以氮元素形态转化及种子发芽指数作为堆肥腐熟度指标,优化各工艺条件:①初始含水率55%,通风量8.5m3/(h·m3)时,堆体升温最快;②堆肥调理效果玉米秸秆优于麦秆,玉米秸秆与沼渣的最佳配比为1:1.5;最佳调理粒径为2mm,利用以上工艺可使低有机质沼渣在70d内种子发芽指数达到50%以上。沼液经秸秆过滤后COD去除率达36%,SS去除率为84%,经A/O-MBR深度处理去除有害微生物及大分子有机物,分别用于有机肥制作,实现了发酵剩余物的稳定化和资源化处理目的。 3) 沼液利用关键设备研发。为解决农村地区重污水、发酵剩余液等固含率较高的废水处理问题,设计并制作了一套利用农业秸秆作为滤料过滤发酵剩余液的小型化固液分离设备,及一套后续深度处理过滤液的A/O-MBR设备,联合使用对沼液中SS去除率达99%,对COD去除率达85%,并且制作成本低,操作简单,具有在农村地区运用的经济性优势。将设备与前述工艺相结合,形成一条完整的农业秸秆资源化利用工艺,实现秸秆的多级利用。
英文摘要: A large number of agricultural straw are produced each year in China. Researchers are actively involved in exploring effective ways of resource and energy-oriented utilization of agricultural straw. Among which, anaerobic digestion(AD) has been widely used as converting biomass materials into clean energy. But the straw digestive efficiency has yet to be improved. And harmless treatment and resource utilization of anaerobic digestate have also become a bottleneck problem restricting the popularization of AD technology. Research of miniaturized processing equipment suitable for rural areas is essential. Crop straw was divided into different parts and pretreated separately to improve biogas production rate in this subject, parts of straw were used as biological filter media of filtering anaerobic digestate for the purpose of separating biogas residue and biogas slurry. The straw used for filtering and the biogas residue intercepted composting production of organic fertilizer biogas slurry used as foliar fertilizer after A/O -MBR, And the research of key equipments was carried out to make the above processes technically feasible. Main conclusions are as follows: 1) AD of crop straw. Different parts of the corn stalk (leaf blade, stem bark, stem pith, corn cobs) were used in AD respectively, after being pretreated by different ways. The most suitable pretreatment method was established according to the biogas yield. When stem pith pretreated with 10% hydrochloric acid, leaf blade and corn cobs with 10% ammonia, stem bark without pretreatment, compared with the whole straw samples pretreated with hydrochloric acid or ammonia. the biogas production rate increased by 6.7% respectively.Compared with the whole stalk samples without pretreatment, the biogas production rate increased by 14%, to 670ml/gVS. 2) Anaerobic digestate resource utilization. We mixed the crop straw with biogas residue in composting reactor under aerobic condition, then discussed the impact of types of conditioners, grain size, moisture content and aeration rate on high temperature composting. The transformation of nitrogen forms and seed germination index were regarded as the maturity indexes to optimize the process conditions. The results showed that:①Under initial moisture content of 55%, aeration rate of 8.5m3/(h·m3), the temperature increased the fastest in term of temperature rise rate.②In terms of being compost conditioner, corn straw is better wheat straw. The best proportion of corn straw and biogas residue was 1:1.5, the optimum particle size is 2mm. The germination index of compost products can reach above 50% using composting process. The removal rate of SS and COD reached 84%, 36%, separately. After A/O-MBR treatment, harmful microorganisms and macromolecular organic matter were removed also. Making organic fertilizer to achieve the stabilization of fermentation residue and recycling purpose. 3)Research on key equipments of biogas slurry utilization. In order to solve the problem of wastewater with high solid content, such as heavy sewage and anaerobic digestate in rural areas. We designed and manufactured a small scale solid-liquid separation equipment by using agricultural straw as filter material to filter anaerobic digestate,and a suite of A/O-MBR equipment for subsequent treatment of filtration fluids, with a combination of which, the removal rate of SS and COD in anaerobic digestate reached 99%, 85%, separately..The operation of equipment is simple and cost is low. They have economic superiority in the rural area utilization. Combining the equipments with the prior processes, a complete process of agricultural straw resource utilization can be formed so as to realize the multistage utilization of agricultural straw.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/38601
Appears in Collections:环境水质学国家重点实验室_学位论文

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作者单位: 1.中国科学院生态环境研究中心

Recommended Citation:
步天达. 农作物秸秆厌氧发酵及其剩余物资源化工程技术研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院生态环境研究中心. 2017.
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