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题名: 互花米草入侵红树林湿地的生态学效应:基于大型底栖动物与鸟类研究
作者: 陈 权1
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2017-05
授予单位: 中国科学院生态环境研究中心
授予地点: 北京
导师: 马克明
关键词: 红树林湿地,互花米草,大型底栖动物,功能摄食类群,碳、氮稳定 同位素,鸟类 ; mangrove wetland, Spartina alterniflora, macrobenthic fauna, functional feeding group, C, N stable isotope, avifauna
其他题名: Ecological impacts of Spartina alterniflora invasion in mangrove wetlands: a study of macrobenthic fauna and avifauna
学位专业: 生态学
中文摘要: 红树林(Mangroves)是分布于热带-亚热带海岸潮间带,受海水周期性浸淹的木本植物群落。大型底栖动物和鸟类是红树林生态系统物质循环和能量流动中的重要环节,对于维持红树林生态系统结构和功能至关重要。互花米草(Spartina alterniflora Loisel.)是禾本科米草属一种适宜生活在潮间带生境多年生草本植物, 其与红树林分布生境有很大的重叠。如今,互花米草对红树林湿地的入侵威胁越来越严峻,尤其在中国东南沿海,所有的红树林分布区都有互花米草出现。然而,现阶段互花米草入侵红树林湿地的相关生态学效应研究相对缺乏。本研究以广东湛江红树林国家级自然保护区为例,设置两组对比生境(无互花米草生境对比有互花米草的同类生境):一组是海榄雌群落对比海榄雌+互花米草混生群落;另一组是裸滩对比互花米草群落。通过分析研究区大型底栖动物群落结构、功能摄食类群结构、食物组成格局和鸟类群落结构的异同及其与环境因 素的关系,揭示互花米草入侵对红树林湿地大型底栖动物及鸟类的生态学效应,并探讨潜在的作用机制。主要研究结果如下: (1)互花米草入侵红树林湿地显著增加了群落根系生物量和植株密度,并显著提高了裸滩沉积物总碳、有机质和总硫的含量。互花米草入侵对海榄雌群落的大型底栖动物群落结构影响微弱,但显著降低了裸滩大型底栖动物群落的生物量和栖息密度。互花米草入侵导致大型底栖动物群落结构的变化主要与沉积物有 机物质含量和植株密度的增加有关。 (2)大型底栖动物物种丰富度、多度和生物量百分比分析显示,互花米草入侵虽然没有影响植食者类群在大型底栖动物功能摄食类群中的优势地位,但通常会显著提高肉食者类群比例。互花米草入侵红树林湿地导致的沉积物粉粒比例降低及植株密度增加可能会限制大型底栖动物各功能摄食类群分布。 (3)基于 11种大型底栖动物和 4种初级生产者的碳、氮稳定同位素数据的MixSIR混合模型分析显示,互花米草已经成为红树林湿地大型底栖动物一种新且重要的食物资源。互花米草已经成功侵入本地食物网,而且某些大型底栖动物对外来互花米草的食物依赖程度甚至超过本地初级生产者。 (4)互花米草入侵红树林湿地对鸟类群落产生了不利影响。混生群落的鸟类多样性(Simpson指数除外)低于海榄雌群落,互花米草群落的鸟类多样性显著低于裸滩,而且裸滩拥有最高的鸟类多样性。互花米草入侵对海榄雌群落的鸟类组成影响微弱,但显著改变裸滩的鸟类组成。鸟类群落对互花米草入侵的响应可能与植物群落高度与密度以及大型底栖动物群落物种丰富度和栖息密度变化有关。 本研究揭示了互花米草入侵红树林湿地对大型底栖动物和鸟类的生态效应 及其作用机制,为深入研究海岸带生态系统生物入侵、生物多样性与生态系统功能相互作用提供了新视角,研究结果可为红树林湿地生物入侵防治和红树林湿地的保护管理提供科学依据。
英文摘要: Mangroves are ecological assemblages of woody plants adapted to grow in intertidal habitats along tropical-subtropical coasts in the world, and have an intimate connection with tide. Macrobenthic fauna and avifauna play essential roles in maintaining the structure and functioning of mangrove wetlands. Spartina alterniflora Loisel. is a perennial Gramineae herb, and favors to colonize in the intertidal zone. Nowadays, the grass S. alterniflora has invaded and occupied most of worldwide coasts. Especially, this weed appears in all mangrove wetlands of South China. However, the research about the ecological effects of S. alterniflora invasions in mangrove wetlands are relatively insufficient. In Zhanjiang Mangrove National Natural Reserve, two comparisons were set: 1) a noninvaded stand vs. an S. alterniflora-invaded stand of the mangrove tree Avicennia marina (a mixture of A. marina and S. alterniflora) and 2) a noninvaded unvegetated shoal vs. an invaded shoal (a S. alterniflora monoculture). The differences in the community structure, functional feeding groups, and dietary pattern of macrobenthic fauna and avifaunal community structure, and their relationships with environmental factors were investigated. The current study aimed to reveal the ecological effects of exotic S. alterniflora on the macrobenthic fauna and avifauna, and the underlying mechanisms. The important findings as following: (1) S. alterniflora invasion significantly increased root mass and plant density, but increased the contents of total carbon, organic matter, and total sulfur in the sediment only in the shoal. The presence of S. alterniflora had little influence on all indices of macrobenthic faunal community in A. marina monoculture, but the density and biomass of macrobenthic faunal community in unvegetated shoal significantly declined. The changes in the macrobenthos in response to S. alterniflora invasion were mainly related to increases in the organic matter content of the sediment and in plant density. (2) The phytophagous was still the dominant functional feeding group after S. alterniflora invasion, based on macrobenthic species richness, abundance and biomass percentages. However, the presence of S. alterniflora often significantly increased the proportion of carnivorous macrobenthic fauna. The lower sediment silt proportion and higher plant density ascribed to S. alterniflora invasions might limit the distribution of macrobenthic functional feeding groups in the Zhanjiang mangrove wetland. (3) The stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes of 4 primary producers and 11 common native macrobenthic fauna were examined and the MixSIR mixing model revealed that exotic S. alterniflora served as a new and important food source for the 11 native macrobenthic fauna. This invasive plant is now part of the local benthic food web, i.e., it serves as a nutrient source for macrobenthic fauna in local mangrove wetlands. Moreover, diet dependency of some native macrobenthic fauna on this exotic plant outweighed their dependency on native primary producers. (4) The presence of S. alterniflora was unsuitable for avifauna in a Zhanjiang mangrove wetaland. All avian parameters except for Simpson index were lower in the S. alterniflora + A. marina mixture than in the A. marina monoculture, the same was significantly true for the S. alterniflora monoculture compared to the unvegetated shoal. Among the 4 habitats, the Shannon-Weiner diversity index, species richness and density of avifauna were highest in the unvegetated shoal. The structure of the avifaunal community was similar in the invaded vs. noninvaded A. marina stand but differed in the invaded vs. noninvaded shoal. The changes in the avifauna in response to invasion were mainly related to increases in plant height and density, and decreases in macrobenthic faunal species richness and density. These results aid the understanding of the ecological effects and mechanisms of plant invasions on macrobenthic fauna and avifauna of mangrove wetlands, and yield insights into the links of biological invasions, functional diversity and ecosystem functioning in coastal ecosystems. And the present study should be useful for guiding the prevention and control of biological invasions, protection and management of mangrove forests in China and elsewhere.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/38606
Appears in Collections:城市与区域生态国家重点实验室_学位论文

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作者单位: 1.中国科学院生态环境研究中心
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