中国科学院生态环境研究中心机构知识库
Advanced  
RCEES OpenIR  > 城市与区域生态国家重点实验室  > 学位论文
题名: 草原生态系统损害基线判定方法研究
作者: 单 鹏1
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2017-05
授予单位: 中国科学院大学
授予地点: 北京
导师: 邓红兵 ; 严岩
关键词: 草原生态系统,损害基线,鉴定评估,方法,锡林郭勒盟 ; Grassland ecosystem ; damage baseline ; assessment ; Method ; Xilin Gol.
其他题名: Study on baseline determination method for eco-environmental damage in grassland ecosystem
学位专业: 生态学
中文摘要: 生态系统损害鉴定评估是生态系统修复与保护工作的基础,其主要内容 是损害基线判定、因果关系分析、量化与经济评估、修复方案制定等工作。 我国生态系统损害鉴定评估工作起步较晚,缺乏针对不同生态系统、不同环 境要素的损害鉴定评估技术。本研究选择占我国陆地面积最大(41.7%)、对 国家生态安全具有重要生态屏障功能的草原生态系统为研究对象,探讨生态 系统损害基线的判定问题,对通常采用的历史数据法、参考点位法、环境标 准法、模型模拟法在草原生态系统损害基线判定中应用的合理性、科学性、 准确性进行对比分析,提出优化改进的损害基线判定方法。以内蒙古锡林郭 勒盟草原生态系统为案例,构建基于 Meta分析的草原生态系统损害基线判 定模型,在此基础上形成草原生态系统损害基线判定技术体系,为我国草原 生态系统损害的鉴定评估及保护工作提供理论依据与技术支撑。 研究发现: 1、草原生态系统损害的溯源应该区分自然演化和人为活动干扰两类因 素。草原生态系统损害基线是动态的,基线动态变化是由生态系统自身演变 规律决定的。 2、通过构建草原生态系统自然演变函数,实现了对草原生态系统自然 演变规律的总结,改进了历史数据法;对比该方法在草原生态系统不同方面 的损害基线判定验证分析,发现该方法适合于对草原植被损害基线判定。 3、通过构建参考点位与评价区域相似度评价指标体系等方式、定量分 析参考点位与评价区域(评价要素)的相似性,尽可能的选择生态功能一致、 距离相对较近、所受人类活动或其他干扰活动的相近的参考点位;对比该方 法在草原生态系统不同方面的损害基线判定验证分析,研究发现该方法适合于草原生态系统土壤环境质量损害基线判定。 4、环境标准法应用于草原生态系统损害基线判定时,在选择用于基线 判定的生态环境标准是,应遵循从严、从旧、质量标准与排放标准共同考虑 等原则,尤其应当将标准的时效性纳入考虑范围,做到环境标准选择的不扩 大与不缩小,保证基线判定的科学性与合理性;对比该方法在草原生态系统 不同方面的损害基线判定验证分析,研究发现该方法适合于草原生态系统大 气环境损害基线判定。 5、模型模拟法应用于草原生态系统损害基线判定时,应当选择已经被 广泛应用并存在大量应用案例的模型,不能选择根据特定研究目标研发的、 针对某些区域、某些要素的与生态环境损害鉴定评估相关性不强的模拟模型; 对比该方法在草原生态系统不同方面的损害基线判定验证分析,研究发现该 方法适合于草原生态系统景观损害基线判定。 6、基于 meta分析的草原生态系统损害鉴定模型通过定量化的文献与研 究综述分析,通过明确损害因子的指示指标,收集相关的数据、文献、研究 报告、标准等,针对每一个损害因子确定入选标准选择合格、可信的研究 , 计算单个研究的效应量,计算综合效应值,异质性检验,敏感性分析,得出 meta分析的总结报告、确定损害基线等步骤计算出相关生态环境要素的损害 基线,具有客观、定量、综合等优点;对比该方法在草原生态系统不同方面 的损害基线判定验证分析,研究发现该方法适合于因草原生态系统损害导致 的居民健康损害的基线判定。
英文摘要: The ecosystem damage assessment is the foundation of the ecosystem and environmental restoration and protection as it provides technical support for restoration projects and environmental pollution controls by means of damage baseline determination, causality analysis, quantitative evaluation, economic value assessment and restoration planning. However, the ecosystem damage assessment in China started late, and there is a lack of specific damage assessment technologies to specific ecosystems and different environmental factors at present. In this study chose the grassland ecosystem as the study area, which is the largest vegetatioin ecosystem in China and bears the important ecological functions. We chose the Xilingol Grassland in Inner Mongolia as the research target to develop a grassland ecosystem conceptual model. Specifically, we analyzed the historical data method, reference point method, environmental standard method and model simulation method in grassland ecological environment damage, compared the rationality, scientificity and veracity among these methods, and then carried out the optimized damage baseline determination method. Based on the Meta-analysis of the grassland ecosystem damage baseline decision model, we developed a grassland ecosystem damage baseline determination technology system and the software support system. We believe that these systems can be a theoretical basis and technique support for the grassland ecological damage assessment and protection. Our research found that: 1. The damage trace of the grassland ecosystem can be separated into 2 parts, one is the natural evolution and the other is human activity interference. 2. When the historical data method was used, not only we should acquire the actual measured historical data, but also we should calculate the factors’ varying pattern, and then combine the historical data and variation function together to determine the ecosystem factors’ damage baseline. 3. When the reference point method was used, for the selection of the reference points, we should construct the similarity index evaluation system of the reference points and the study area, quantitatively analyze the similarity between the reference points and the study area (study factors), and choose the reference points with the same ecosystem function, short distance and same type of human activity inferences and other inferences. 4. When the environmental standard method was used, we should consider the effectiveness of the standard, keep the environmental standard not too strict nor too loose, and make the baseline determination scientific and rational. 5. When the model simulation method was used, we should choose the models with widely existed and applied, we should not choose the irrelevant simulation models base on the specific goals, areas and factors. 6. Based on the Meta-analysis of the grassland ecosystem damage baseline decision model, we collected and quantitatively analyzed the references, papers, reports and standards of the damage indicator factors, determined the criteria for the indicators, calculated the effect size, and perform the reliability analysis, heterogeneity test and sensitive analysis, and then finished the Meta -analysis report and determined the damage baseline with relative ecosystem factors. This method is objective, quantitative and comprehensive.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/38612
Appears in Collections:城市与区域生态国家重点实验室_学位论文

Files in This Item:
File Name/ File Size Content Type Version Access License
单鹏--草原生态系统损害基线判定方法研究.pdf(3646KB)学位论文--限制开放 联系获取全文

作者单位: 1.中国科学院生态环境研究中心

Recommended Citation:
单 鹏. 草原生态系统损害基线判定方法研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学. 2017.
Service
Recommend this item
Sava as my favorate item
Show this item's statistics
Export Endnote File
Google Scholar
Similar articles in Google Scholar
[单 鹏]'s Articles
CSDL cross search
Similar articles in CSDL Cross Search
[单 鹏]‘s Articles
Related Copyright Policies
Null
Social Bookmarking
Add to CiteULike Add to Connotea Add to Del.icio.us Add to Digg Add to Reddit
所有评论 (0)
暂无评论
 
评注功能仅针对注册用户开放,请您登录
您对该条目有什么异议,请填写以下表单,管理员会尽快联系您。
内 容:
Email:  *
单位:
验证码:   刷新
您在IR的使用过程中有什么好的想法或者建议可以反馈给我们。
标 题:
 *
内 容:
Email:  *
验证码:   刷新

Items in IR are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.

 

 

Valid XHTML 1.0!
Copyright © 2007-2018  中国科学院生态环境研究中心 - Feedback
Powered by CSpace