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题名: 煤电基地开发的生态环境累积效应评价及监测管理系统设计——以锡林郭勒煤电基地为例
作者: 韩林桅1
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 2017-06
授予单位: 中国科学院大学
授予地点: 北京
导师: 吴钢
关键词: 煤电基地,累积效应,土地利用 /覆盖,土壤重金属,监测管理系统 ; coal power base, cumulative effect, land use/cover, soil heavy metal,monitoring management system
其他题名: Study on Eco-Environmental Cumulative Effect of Coal Power Base Development and design of monitoring and management: A Case Study of Coal Power Base in Xilin Gol
学位专业: 环境工程
中文摘要: 煤电基地开发建设是我国当前重要的能源战略。煤矿开采和电力生产一体化 开发会对区域生态系统带来复杂而持续的影响。我国煤电基地主要分布于西北和 陕北等生态脆弱区,研究煤电基地开发的生态环境影响,揭示其在时间、空间上 的分布和积累特征与规律,是当前区域生态环境管理和保护需要探索的重要科学 问题,可以为煤电基地及生态影响区的可持续发展与管理提供科学依据。本文从 理论与实证研究两方面对煤电基地开发的生态环境累积效应进行探究。首先对煤 电基地开发的生态环境累积效应进行识别与分析,探究不同开发建设活动产生累 积效应的过程与途径;之后选取土地利用/覆盖和土壤重金属含量的累积效应进 行评价;最后对煤电基地开发的生态环境累积效应监测管理系统进行构思设计。 本文主要的研究内容与成果如下: (1)基于文献查阅和专家咨询方法,确定了煤电基地开发的生态环境累积 效应因子,建立了基于解释结构模型(ISM)的因子之间的关联与层次结构,系 统清晰地揭示了煤电基地开发引起生态环境累积效应的方式和途径。研究结果可 以为煤电基地开发的规划与管理提供一定的理论基础与技术手段。 (2)从区域土地利用的变化来看,对于矿业城市锡林浩特市,2000~2013年 期间土地利用变化趋于主要集中在矿区及周边区域。总体表现为人工用地类型的 增加和自然用地类型的减少,并且在矿区建设初期,城乡建成区的扩展对土地的 占用要高于矿区建设,主要原因是矿区建设带来的人口集聚效应。 (3)从胜利矿区的土地利用/覆盖时空变化特征来看,矿区内人工用地类型增 加,并对区域景观格局变化中的主导作用增强。2000~2014年矿区内采矿用地和 居住用地增加,并且主要集中在矿区一期建设阶段。并且由于矿区建设带来的人 口集聚效应,居住用地增加早于采矿用地增加,但由于人为干扰与土地占用,矿 区内的水体和耕地面积在建设初期减少,后期耕地面积有所回升。矿区建设后, 景观格局的完整性降低,但多样性和均匀性增加,并且与人类活动最为紧密联系 的围栏草地、露天煤矿和城镇及工矿景观类型对区域景观格局的发展的主导性增 加。 (4)从胜利矿区开发土地利用/覆盖累积效应来看,在胜利矿区开发的影响范 围内,在时间变化方面,胜利矿区及15km缓冲区在2000~2015年的植被覆盖度变 化主要受区域降水的影响,但矿区开采点受人为活动干扰显著,在矿区建设期间 植被覆盖显著下降。在空间变化方面,矿区整体及1~3km的缓冲区相比3km以外 缓冲区植被覆盖度较低,且显著小于13~15 km的缓冲区(p<0.05),推断该露天 矿建设的影响范围大致在3km以内。 (5)从矿区排土场土壤重金属含量累积效应来看,待建场地与排土场中只 有 As元素属于轻—中度污染,各重金属潜在生态危害系数与总潜在生态危害指 数处于轻微状态。排土场中 Cr、Ni、Cu、Zn、As、Cd元素在时间上呈现出一定 的累积趋势,并且在建成时间最长(5年)的南排土场中含量显著高于其他区域, 说明露天开采造成的排土场土壤的重金属污染是一个缓慢的过程。复垦植被对 Pb元素含量具有较为明显的吸收固定作用。来源分析结果表明,土壤中 Cr、Ni、 As、Cu、Zn、Cd来源相同,而 Pb和 Hg分别有单独来源。 (6)结合对煤电基地开发的生态环境累积效应的理论分析与实例研究,提 出了煤电基地开发的生态环境累积效应监测与评估框架。基于物联网框架,对煤 电基地开发生态环境累积效应的监测与管理体系进行构思设计,并对系统功能框 架进行了设计。最后基于煤电基地开发的生态环境累积效应监测管理系统,建立 监测、评价、管理“三位一体”的管理模式。研究结果可为煤电基地的可持续发 展与监测管理提供平台支撑和参考。
英文摘要: Coal power base development is an important measure of energy strategy in China. The coal power bases in China are mostly ecological fragile areas. Moreover, the impact of coal power bases development on the ecology mostly has gained complexity due to the strong interference, time continuity, space expansion of coal and electricitic resource development activities. It can provide scientific basis for the sustainable development of coal power base to uncover the accumulation features of the eco- environmental influence. In this paper, the eco-environmental cumulative effect of coal and electricity base development was studied in theoretical and empirical aspects. Firstly, the eco-environmental cumulative effect was recognized and analyzed to explore the pathways and processes of different exploitation and construction. Then, the land utilization, cumulative changes of vegetation coverage and heavy metal pollution of selected area were analyzed. Finally, the monitoring and management system was designed. The main results are as follows: (1) The factors of cumulative eco-environment effect of coal power bases exploitation were selected based on literature survey and expert questionnaire methods, and the structure and correlations between factors were established using interpretative structural model (ISM), which clearly reveals the way in which the cumulative eco- environmental effect was caused by the coal power base development. The results could provide a theoretical and technical basis for planning and management of coal power base development activities. (2) In view of the regional land use change, it was primarily concentrated on the mine lot and the surroundings for the mining industrial Xilin Hot city. The artificially uses lands increased with the decrease of natural areas. Additionally, the expansion of the urban-rural construction was high than that of the mining area in mining construction period primarily due to the effect of population gathering. (3) From the land use/coverage change features of the Shengli mining area, the lead function of the regional landscape pattern change intensifies with the addition of artificial land. The mining and residential land increased from 2000 to 2014 and mainly in the period of the first mining construction. The residential land increased before the increase of mining land due to the effect of population aggregation, resulted from mining construction. However, since the human disturbance and land use, the water and agricultural land decreased in the initial period of construction and recovered in the later period. After mining construction, though the integrity of landscape pattern weakened, the diversity and homogeneity increased. Meanwhile, the lead function to the regional landscape pattern increased for the enclosed grassland, opencast coal mine, and urban and industrial landscape, which are closely related to human activities. (4) In view of land use/cover cumulative effect of Shengli mining area development, in the area influenced by Shengli mining area development, in terms of time variation, the vegetation coverage changes of mining area and 15km buffer during 2000~2015 is mainly affected by the regional precipitation, while the mining area is influenced by human activities significantly, where the vegetation coverage decreased significantly during construction period. In terms of space variation, the vegetation coverage of mining area and 1~3km buffer is lower than the other areas, and are significantly lower than 13~15 km buffer(p<0.05). It can be inferred that the influence scope of mining activities should be less than 3 km. (5) In view of the accumulation characteristics of heavy metal in soil in mining areas, only As in the soils of the dumps and constructing site belongs to the mild pollution, while other heavy metals belong to slight pollution. The Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd show an accumulation trend as a function of time, especially for the longest period (5 years) south dump, which was high than other regions, indicating that the pollution of heavy metal on soils by opencast working is a slow process. The reclamation vegetation of the Pd shows a function of absorption and fixation. In soils, the Cr, Ni, As, Cu, Zn, and Cd are from the same source, while the Pd and Hg have separate sources. (6) A research and evaluation framework for the cumulative eco-environmental effect was introduced based on the theoretical analysis and case study of the eco- environmental cumulative effect of the development of the coal power base. Based on the framework of Internet of things, the monitoring and management system of the eco- environmental cumulative effect of the of coal power base development and system function framework were designed. Finally, a triune mode of management, i.e. monitoring, evaluation and management was set up based on the research and evaluation framework for the cumulative eco-environmental effect. The results could provide the platform support and reference for the sustainable development of coal power base and the eco-environment monitoring and management.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/38626
Appears in Collections:城市与区域生态国家重点实验室_学位论文

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作者单位: 1.中国科学院生态环境研究中心
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