中国科学院生态环境研究中心机构知识库
Advanced  
RCEES OpenIR  > 城市与区域生态国家重点实验室  > 学位论文
题名: 干旱半干旱典型生态脆弱区复合生态系统管理研究
作者: 贾举杰1
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2017-06
授予单位: 中国科学院大学
授予地点: 北京
导师: 王如松 ; 李峰
关键词: 复合生态系统,生态脆弱区,利益相关方,生态修复,生态移民,非营利性社会组织,社区参与,多元共治
其他题名: Analysis of Social-Economic-Natural Complex Ecosystem Management in Arid and Semi-arid Typical Vulnerable Ecological Region of Alxa, Inner Mongolia
学位专业: 生态学
中文摘要: 中国的生态脆弱区分布类型多、占地面积广,针对脆弱受损生态系统展开修 复与治理,是维护区域生态安全和可持续发展的重要举措。内蒙古自治区阿拉善 盟既是沙尘暴的重要源头,也是我国生态环境严重恶化的生态脆弱地区和国家重 点生态功能保护区,该区域的生态环境不仅影响北京和华北地区的生态安全,甚 至影响到东亚国家的生态环境。本研究以复合生态系统管理理论为指导,首先, 以阿拉善盟 1980—2014年 35年年际自然和社会、经济变化为基础;其次,根据 阿拉善盟的社会现状并整合 1998—2014以来,阿拉善盟政府机构、社会组织(国 际+国内)、社会公众的生态建设和修复行动作为突破口,运用复合生态系统管理 理论,围绕社会、经济、自然三个子系统分别选取该区域关键因子(不同利益群 体参与的区域微观经济流分析、不同利益群体参与的区域水资源管理博弈分析、 基于多利益群体博弈的生态移民后续生计和区域生态恢复耦合研究)进行案例辨 识和剖析;再次,采用入户访问和半结构访谈的方式,对阿拉善盟三个旗的 16 个自然村的 501户访谈对象进行问卷调查,分析不同环境政策下各利益相关方的 生计资本变化和响应策略,以及对未来生态环境治理的意愿和建议,以期为典型 生态脆弱区荒漠复合生态系统的建设提供参考和管理建议;最后,提出多元共治 下的荒漠复合生态系统的适应性管理调控建议和对策。本文的主要研究结论是: (1)本研究以复合生态系统管理理论为指导,采用 SWOT分析的方法,以 阿拉善盟 1980—2014年 35年年际自然和社会、经济数据(人口、温度、家畜量) 变化为基础,辨识和阐述了阿拉善面临的优势、劣势、机遇和存在的生态威胁。 认为:35年来,该区域以“政府主导,社会行动,社区参与”为主导的生态建设 和修复模式,引起了该区域复合生态系统中的社会—经济—自然指标变化,产生 了良好的社会、经济、生态效果。 (2)针对该区域不同利益群体参与的区域微观经济流(社区发展基金 CDF) 分析,选取 SEE在阿拉善盟开展的 4个嘎查(村)364户农户的进行随机问卷调 查,并对其中两个村落的 15 位农户展开长期跟踪调查的社区发展基金的实证研 究表明:2005—2015年,参加社区发展基金后,农户的收入结构和产业结构发生 了大幅变化,即农业收入增幅减小,牧业收入比重下降,第三产业及其他收入比 重显著增加,促进了农业的转型升级。表明参加社区发展基金,减轻了村民对区 域自然资源的依赖程度,增强了村民的自我管理能力和收入来源,有利于区域可 持续发展及人和自然的和谐共处;同时,该区域集政府资本、社会资本(SEE)、 民间资本(村民)等多方资金为一体的社区发展基金,丰富和拓展了社区发展基 金的内涵,为荒漠复合生态系统的建设和区域经济可持续发展提供了借鉴,也为 我国的精准扶贫工作提供理论依据。 (3)研究区不同利益群体参与的区域水资源管理博弈分析表明:2008年研 究区乌达木塔拉嘎查政府—社会组织—农牧民多个利益相关群体共治下的膜下 滴灌种植试验,以当地农牧民为环境保护和可持续发展项目的主体,探索了在不 损害农牧民利益和自然环境的条件下社区自然资源的可持续管理途径,促进了自 然资源的高效利用,并提高了当地居民资源管理的能力和自我发展的内生能力, 实现了生产、生态、生活的“三生”共赢,为荒漠复合生态系统水资源管理和利 用方面提供了案例支持。 (4)基于多利益群体博弈的生态移民后续生计和区域生态恢复耦合研究表 明:铁木日乌德嘎查政府部门—社会组织—生态移民(农牧民)多方参与和博弈 的生态建设和可持续发展行动,以生态移民为主体,多个利益相关群体参与,且 在不损害区域生态环境的前提下,实现了生态移民后续产业的可持续发展;其次, 铁木日乌德嘎查多方博弈的生态移民后后续产业可持续发展的成效,为荒漠绿洲 生态移民工程的实施提供了借鉴案例;再次,在市场经济条件下,铁木日乌德嘎 查基于政府—NGO—农牧民多方参与尝试建立的以农牧民为主体的股份制集约 化奶牛养殖小区,实现了生态文明时期的农民与市场的有效接轨,为生态移民的 后续产业化和区域生态恢复耦合研究提供了有效尝试和实证研究。 (5)结合上述研究基础和案例实证,并阿拉善盟的人文和地理特征,在作 者本人多年现场跟踪、参与、记录的基础上,本研究针对阿拉善盟的 16个自然 村 501位访谈对象进行田野问卷调查,分析不同环境政策下各利益相关方的生计 资本变化和响应策略,以及对未来生态环境治理和修复的意愿和建议,以期为荒 漠复合生态系统的建设提供借鉴和管理建议。主要结论: Ⅰ政府项目管理流程复杂,不满足单家独户的个体需求和项目信息不透明, 缺少项目后期的监测和统筹是社区项目户对于“自上而下”的政府公共管理项目 的建议和意愿相应。 ⅡNGO 项目过度重视项目操作理念,缺少和政府、科研部门的密切配合以 及 NGO机构人员流动大、影响项目执行是社区项目户对于“自下而上”的 NGO 项目的建议和响应。 Ⅲ同时参加政府项目和 NGO,改变了项目群体的主要收入来源(种植、养 殖、副业),改变了农牧民的生产生活方式和对区域自然资源的利用方式,增强 了项目群体的生产生活技能、减轻了项目群体对农业和牧业的依赖,缓解了当地 人对本地自然环境的压力。同时,参与环境保护和可持续发展项目后,生态移民 优先选择不返迁,坚持在新的居住地生活安居。 Ⅳ自然因素(干旱、虫鼠害等)和人为因素(农业增加、城市扩张、工业增 加等)是基于访谈对象认知的阿拉善盟环境恶化的主要原因。 Ⅴ多年来,政府部门主导的生态补偿和生态移民等政策的实施,政府、NGO、 农牧民的群策群力以及农牧民环保意识的增强等综合因素是阿拉善盟环境局部 恢复的主要原因。
英文摘要: Alxa is located in the western of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, it is the main source of dust storms, meanwhile it also an ecological fragile area and a national key ecological function area. The ecological environment of the region affects the ecological safety of not only Beijing (the capital city of China) and North China but also those countries in the East Asian. In this study, a theoretical framework is established for the management of the Social-Economic-Natural Complex Ecosystem (SENCE) in the arid and semi-arid typical ecotone in Alxa. First of all, the analysis of past 35 years social-economical situation is made based on the natural and social and economic changes of Alxa from 1980 to 2014; secondly, in the context of the social- economical situation, some community-based development projects are identified and examined as case studies, which are conducted by either government or Non- governmental organizations (NGO) such as multi-stakeholder sustainable development projects, multi-participatory under-film drip irrigation projects under the Community Development Fund (CDF) project and so on. Thirdly, semi-structured interviews area conducted to 501 households in 16 natural villages in three counties of Alxa, in order to find out local people’s response to multi-stakeholder participated desert controlling project implemented by government or NGO, which also provide experiences and lessons for management of the typical ecologically fragile area. Finally, the paper proposes some suggestions and adaptive management measures for management the desert ecosystem under the governance of multiple stakeholders. The main conclusions includes: (1) This paper establishes the theoretical framework of the Social-Economic- Natural Complex Ecosystem (SENCE) management in arid and semi-arid areas. Using the SWOT method, the natural, social, and economic data (such as population, temperature and livestock and so on) of Alxa in the period of 1980-2014 are analyzed, the natural and cultural advantages of Alxa were identified as well as its disadvantages, opportunities and ecological threats. The results show that the activities of desertification protection led by government and participated in by NGO and communities in the region in the past 35 years has made improvement in the socio- economic-natural indicators, resulting in a good social, economic, and ecological effects. (2) Random questionnaire were conducted to farmers in 4 natural communities launching CDF projects in Alxa initiated by Society of Entrepreneurs & Ecology (SEE) from November 2015 to January 2017. semi-structural interviews were taken to 364 householders. Meanwhile, family income and industrial structure were tracked and recorded among 15 families in 2 communities. Results show that, during 2005 and 2015, Farmers’ income structure and industrial structure were significantly modified after participation in CDF. Increase of agricultural income was minimal and proportion of income from animal husbandry declined while the proportion of income from the third industry and other income sources significantly rose, which indicates that CDF project reduce local community’s excessive dependence on regional natural resources, enhance their capacity in self-management and self-development so as to promote the sustainable development. Meanwhile, integrating governmental capital, social capital and local communities’ resource, CDF provide experiences and lessons for the construction of desertification complex ecosystem as well as sustainable development of regional economy. In addition, it also supplies theoretical supports for precise poverty alleviation in China’s New Normal Period for ecological civilization in China. (3) The research on the desert oasis water-saving irrigation project under the governance of multiple stakeholders shows that, in 2008 at the village of Wudamutala, supported by the government and NGO, local farmers and herdsmen play the main role in conducting environmental protection and sustainable development projects to explore the sustainable management of natural resources without effecting the interests of local farmers and herdsmen, damaging the natural environment, and meanwhile promoting the efficient use of natural resources, Improving the ability of local communities’ capacity of resource management and self-development. The film drip irrigation project achieves the win-win situation in production, ecology, and life for the desert complex ecosystem water resources management and utilization. (4) An empirical case study on the sustainable development of ecological migration in Tiemuriwude village shows that ecology construction and sustainable development initiatives participated in by the local government, NGO, and ecological migrants (displaced farmers and herdsmen) have made the significant achievements that realize the sustainable development without damaging the regional ecological environment, it is so mainly because the ecological migrants take on the main responsibility among the multiple stakeholder groups. The case of Tiemuriwude village also set up a good example for other the desert oasis ecological resettlement project. In addition, under the condition of market economy, Tiemuriwude village innovate community based joint-stock dairy farm with supporting from the local government and NGO, which promotes not only ecological civilization development but also promote local communities’ economical growth. (5) Based on the study some comments and suggestions are proposed to both government and NGO for their future project implementation, they are: I For the “top-down” government-led projects, the main problems include failing to meet the needs of individual households because of complex management process, nontransparent project information, and lack of project monitoring and co-ordination . II For the “bottom-up” NGO-led projects, the main comments and suggestions are over-emphasis on the concept of project operation, the lack of close cooperation with the government and research departments, and unstable project staff. III Those householders participating in both government-led and NGO-led projects diversify the main income sources (planting, breeding and sideline production), enhance the production and life skills while reducing the dependence on agriculture and animal husbandry so as to relieve the pressure on the local natural environment. At the same time, those projects also help migrants settle to avoid mover back their original homeland. IV Based on the interview, the main causes of the deterioration in Alxa are both the natural factors (drought, insect pests, etc.) and the human factors (agricultural increase, urban expansion, industrial increase, etc.). V The main reasons for environmental improvement and restoration in Alxa includes the government-led ecological compensation and the implementation of policies of ecological migration, collectives efforts made by the government, NGO, and farmers and herdsmen, and the enhancement of farmers and herdsmen’s environmental awareness.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/38637
Appears in Collections:城市与区域生态国家重点实验室_学位论文

Files in This Item:
File Name/ File Size Content Type Version Access License
贾举杰--干旱半干旱典型生态脆弱区复合生态系统管理研究.pdf(2626KB)学位论文--限制开放 联系获取全文

作者单位: 1.中国科学院生态环境研究中心

Recommended Citation:
贾举杰. 干旱半干旱典型生态脆弱区复合生态系统管理研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学. 2017.
Service
Recommend this item
Sava as my favorate item
Show this item's statistics
Export Endnote File
Google Scholar
Similar articles in Google Scholar
[贾举杰]'s Articles
CSDL cross search
Similar articles in CSDL Cross Search
[贾举杰]‘s Articles
Related Copyright Policies
Null
Social Bookmarking
Add to CiteULike Add to Connotea Add to Del.icio.us Add to Digg Add to Reddit
所有评论 (0)
暂无评论
 
评注功能仅针对注册用户开放,请您登录
您对该条目有什么异议,请填写以下表单,管理员会尽快联系您。
内 容:
Email:  *
单位:
验证码:   刷新
您在IR的使用过程中有什么好的想法或者建议可以反馈给我们。
标 题:
 *
内 容:
Email:  *
验证码:   刷新

Items in IR are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.

 

 

Valid XHTML 1.0!
Copyright © 2007-2018  中国科学院生态环境研究中心 - Feedback
Powered by CSpace