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题名: 典型消费电子产品生命周期管理对策研究——以手机为例
作者: 李 博1
学位类别: 博士后
答辩日期: 2017-11
授予单位: 中国科学院大学
授予地点: 北京
导师: 吴钢
关键词: 手机,生命周期管理,废弃电器电子产品,电子 ; mobile phones, life cycle management, waste electrical and electronicequipment (WEEE), e-waste
学位专业: 环境科学与工程
中文摘要: 作为实现移动通信功能所不可或缺的载体,手机已经成为人们生活中最为常 见的消费电子产品。核心技术的不断进步,功能款式的推陈出新,连同手机生产 商、运营商与零售商基于自身利益考量的宣传鼓动等因素共同驱使着消费者频繁 的更换手机,因此产生了大量的废旧手机。 作为一类典型的小型废弃电器电子产品(Small WEEE),废旧手机具有产生 数量大、单位体积小、回收比例低、资源价值高等特点。此外,因为废旧手机具 有复杂的材料组成,不当的资源再生和处理处置过程会产生严重的环境污染和人 体健康损害,所以如何构建高效的管理体系实现废旧手机的可持续管理是全球各 界近年来面临的共同课题 废旧手机在回收、处理和处置的过程中,对水体、土壤、大气和人体健康等 多方面都具有潜在环境影响,因此有必要对其生命周期全过程进行综合管理。为 解析废旧手机的生命周期过程,促进废旧手机可持续管理体系的构建,本论文主 要开展了以下几方面的研究。 (1)梳理了不同国家与地区废旧手机管理模式与研究现状,识别了废旧手 机管理在有效模式和方法上的缺失,探讨了现有相关理论研究的不足。废旧手机 利益相关方众多,利益协调关系复杂,物质流向多样,资源回收潜力显著,延用 大型废弃电器电子产品的管理模式需要巨大的管理成本,因此迫切需要建立针对 废旧手机之类小型废弃电器电子产品的管理体系。基于上述国家与地区的废旧手 机管理实践,废旧手机管理体系应覆盖生命周期全过程。 (2)研究了手机消费行为,探讨了消费者行为对于废旧手机产生和回收过 程的影响;调研了废旧手机生命周期不同阶段的利益相关方。结果显示,消费者 更换手机频繁;退出使用阶段的废旧手机超过半数被闲置,主要原因是回收活动 不够吸引人;消费者对于废旧手机无偿回收的认知程度低下,显示出废旧手机相 关宣传教育尚需完善;消费者对于废旧手机回收方式无特别偏好,但预期回收价 格过高,也是造成废旧手机大量闲置的原因之一,因此激励在废旧手机回收中具 有重要作用。 (3)总结了现有废弃电器电子产品产生量估算方法的研发背景、估算模型、应用实例以及优点与不足,分析了不同方法的数据需求与适用条件,提出了废弃 电器电子产品产生量估算方法的选择策略。论文深入研究了废旧手机的产生过程 和驱动力,开发了适用于废旧手机产生量估算的注册更新模型。基于上述选择策 略选取了消费与使用模型以及注册更新模型对全球废旧手机产生量进行了估算。 结果显示注册更新模型的估算结果更加符合实际情况,2016 年全球废旧手机产 生量达到17.81 亿部。 选取了不同年代与技术平台的典型型号废旧手机进行拆解试验,量化了不同 时期典型手机单位重量、部件与材料组成,评估了废旧手机的资源潜力。结果显 示,废旧手机具有巨大的资源潜力,2016 年全球废旧手机中包含可再生资源8.18 万吨。 (4)构建了产品/物质流、价值/利润流与激励/补贴流的整合模型,系统分 析了手机生命周期关键环节,凝练了手机生命周期管理中的关键问题,并提出了 针对性的管理对策。 本文通过应用生命周期管理理念,丰富了中国废旧手机环境管理的基础数据, 建立了手机生命周期过程的整合模型,对促进中国废旧手机可持续管理具有一定 的科学价值和现实意义。
英文摘要: The mobile phone has become the most ubiquitous electronic product as the irreplaceable device to realize the function of mobile communication. Meanwhile, the rapid technology innovation with better functions and models impelled the customers to change mobile phones more and more frequently, which leads to the short lifetime of mobile phones and rapid generation of retired mobile phones. The retired mobile phone is a kind of typical small WEEE with the characteristics such as big amount, small volume, high reuse/recovery value and low take-back rate. Moreover, its complex composition poses a potential negative effect on environment and human health, if not treated properly in its End-of-Life. Consequently, the huge amount of retired mobile phones calls for a sustainable management system. Retired mobile phones has potential environmental impacts on soil, water and air quality, as well as human health within its entire life cycle stages (i.e., from generation, collection, transportation, recycling to final disposal). Accordingly, it is essential to implement an integrated management of retired mobile phones from the life cycle point of view. In order to identify the life cycle of retired mobile phones, and to construct the sustainable management system for retired mobile phones, the following scientific issues are conducted in this study. (1)The administrative system and research status for retired mobile phones in different countries and regions around the world were compared to explore the experience and improvement potential for the sustainable management system. (2)The consumption behavior of mobile phones were analyzed to discover its influence on the generation and collection of retired mobile phones. Through the interviews with the stockholders in each life cycle stage of mobile phones, the understanding of the retired mobile phone treatment industry chain is also analyzed. The results show that, the consumers replace their mobile phones frequently and most of the retired mobile phones are stockpiled for the incentives of the take-back activities are not attractive enough. Moreover, the awareness of gratuitous take-back are relatively low, which indicate the publicity about the environmental issues of retired mobile phones needs to be improved. In addition, the consumers have no preference in the various mode to take-back retired mobile phones, but the expected price for retired mobile phones are to expensive for the collectors, which is the other reason for the high stockpiled rate and show the importance of the incentives for retired mobile phones take-back. (3)The methodologies and applications of the generation estimation methods of WEEE were analyzed, and the data requirement and appropriate application condition of each method were also identified. Then the selection strategy was proposed to provide authentic estimations and sustainable management of WEEE. The generation amount of retired mobile phones was estimated by proper methods followed the above selection strategy, the temporal and spatial variation of retired mobile phones generation were then identified. The results show that, in 2016, there are 1781.70 millions mobile phones retired with the Sales and New model. The typical models of retired mobile phones in various periods were chosen to quantitate the unit weight, composition of components and materials, the recycling potential and material flows. The results show that, the retired mobile phone is huge in potential recoverable resource because of the large generation amount and high resource abundance. There is 81.8 thousand tons of recyclable resource in the retired mobile phones. (4)The life cycle integration framework of retired mobile phones (which was integrated by product/material flow, value/profit flow and incentive/subsidy flow) was constructed. And then the key links and problems in each phases of the life cycle of mobile phones were discussed, and the targeted countermeasures were proposed. With the life cycle thinking of waste management, this study established the life cycle integration framework of retired mobile phones, provided the environmental management data of retired mobile phones, analyse the key links and problems in the life cycle of retired mobile phones and proposes the targeted countermeasures. The study will provide basic scientific information and practical significance for sustainable management of retired mobile phones.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/38640
Appears in Collections:城市与区域生态国家重点实验室_学位论文

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作者单位: 1.中国科学院生态环境研究中心

Recommended Citation:
李 博. 典型消费电子产品生命周期管理对策研究——以手机为例[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学. 2017.
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