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题名: 高层住宅小区建筑形态与绿地布局对微气象影响研究
作者: 李笑寒1
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 2017-05
授予单位: 中国科学院大学
授予地点: 北京
导师: 胡聃
关键词: 微气象,数值模拟,建筑形态,绿地布局,ENVI-met ; micrometeorology, numerical simulation, architectural form, green space layout,ENVI-met
其他题名: The Impact of Architectural Form and Central Green Space Layout on Micrometeorology in High Residential Community
学位专业: 生态学
中文摘要: 快速高强度的城市化使得城市面貌日新月异,城市下垫面发生变化,城市 气候也发生改变。城市热岛、城市污染等问题要求对城市生态系统空间结构配 置及其生态环境影响加以研究,从而协调城市发展建设与居民健康安全的平衡。 由于宏观调控城市生态环境和区域气候影响难度较大,但小尺度的城市区域空 间配置调控相对可行,因此,探讨小尺度的典型城市单元的空间配置及其生态 环境影响具有重要意义。 高层住宅小区以其高容积率的特点,符合土地资源稀缺而城镇人口不断增 加的背景要求,成为当今居住区的建造主流。而高层住宅小区的空间配置不仅 会影响对太阳辐射的吸收与反射,还会影响植被的光合作用及蒸腾作用等,因 此高层住宅小区的建筑形态与绿地布局影响着小区微气象情况以及小区居民的 生活舒适度。 以微气象模拟软件 ENVI-met为平台,使用模型模拟的研究方法,以北京 市两个典型高层住宅小区为研究对象,讨论不同建筑形态以及不同中心绿地布 局的微气象影响。其中,建筑形态模型以逸成东苑小区为原型,分别构建塔式 建筑群模型和板式建筑群模型,探讨其他配置情况均相同条件下,春夏两季不 同建筑形态对周边微气象的影响情况;中心绿地布局模型选择中心绿地形状规 则、面积较大的聚福苑小区为研究对象,设置八种不同的中心绿地布局情景模 型,探讨中心绿地布局对高层住宅小区的影响情况。并通过实测数据验证模型 精度的合理性。 主要得出的结论有:春季和夏季塔式建筑群和板式建筑群各微气象要素时 间序列变化趋势基本相同,其中夏季两种形态建筑群的微气象要素差值较大。 春季板式建筑群的室外热舒适度优于塔式建筑群,而夏季塔式建筑群的室外热 舒适度优于板式建筑群。不同的中心绿地布局中,当中心绿地不建设任何小路 或建有中心广场时,相比于其他中心绿地中有小路的布局方式,有明显的降温 和增湿作用,且中心广场周边的小路形状不会对微气象造成影响。南北向、斜 向的中心绿地小路会分割高温斑块,而东西向的小路不会;不同下垫面类型处 的微气象情况差异明显。 讨论高层住宅小区不同建筑形态和中心绿地布局对小区微气象的影响差 异,从空气温度、相对湿度、风速、平均辐射温度等多个微气象要素对塔式建 筑群和板式建筑群以及八种中心绿地布局进行对比分析,为高层住宅小区的规 划建设提供了帮助,为改善居民生活环境,提高居民舒适度提供了理论基础。
英文摘要: Rapid urbanization makes the urban landscape ever-changing. The city underlying surface has changed as well as the urban climate. The spatial structure and ecological environmental impact of urban ecosystem should be studied which cause the urban problems such as urban heat island and urban pollution, to banlance Urban development with people’s health and safety. The regulation of small-scale spatial allocation is more practicable than regulating the large scale, which makes great significance. High residential community becomes the tendency of residential construction as its high building plot ratio because of the scarce land resources and the increase of urban population. The architectural form and green space layout influence the micrometeorology of high residential community and residents’ comfort. The impact of architectural form and central green space layout on micrometeorology in two typical high residential communities in Beijing were analyzed with the simulation in ENVI-met. The models of tower building and slab building of Yichengdongyuan residential community were built in ENVI-met to compare their micrometeorology under the condition of other configurations are same. The micrometeorology of the model of Jufuyuan residential community with eight different central green layouts was studied whose central green was big with regular shape. The accuracy of the model was conviced by the comparation between the simulated data and actual measurement data. Results showed that the time series of simulated micrometeorology of two seasons in both tower building model and slab building model had the same varying trend. The simulated results of two models had little difference in spring while the difference of the simulated results of two models was significant in summer. In spring, the outdoor thermal comfort of slab building was better than tower building. On the contrary, tower building had a better outdoor thermal comfort than slab building in summer. The layouts with a whole lawn in the central or the lawn equipped with square in the center, had a better effect on decreasing temperature and increasing relative humidity compared with other layouts in which contained some roads while the shape of roads around the square did not affect the results. In addition, the North-South direction paths split the temperature patches, however, it did not happen on East-West path. Different underlying surface types strongly influenced the result of temperature, relative humidity and wind speed. The impact of architectural form and central green space layout on micrometeorology in high residential community were analyzed based on the air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and average mean radiant temperature of two architectural forms and eight kinds of central green layouts. The results will provide reference for residential planning and the living thermal comfort as well as the residential environmet improving.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/38648
Appears in Collections:城市与区域生态国家重点实验室_学位论文

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作者单位: 1.中国科学院生态环境研究中心
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