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题名: 危险废物处置的生态环境风险评价与管理体系研究——以辽东湾新区危险废物处置为例
作者: 刘东风1
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2017-05
授予单位: 中国科学院大学
授予地点: 北京
导师: 吴钢
关键词: 危险废物,处置,生态风险评价,管理体系,辽东湾 ; Hazardous waste, disposal, ecological environmental risk assessment, management system, coastal economic zones in eastern Liaoning Province
其他题名: Ecological environmental risk assessment and management system of a hazardous waste disposal —A case study in coastal economic zones of eastern Liaoning Province
学位专业: 环境经济与环境管理
中文摘要: 危险废物是具有腐蚀性、易燃性、反应性、毒性等特性的废弃物,危险废物 的不合理处置可能对人体健康、区域环境以及生态系统产生严重危害,甚至造成 不可逆的毒害影响。近年来,随着社会经济的不断发展和工业化水平的提高,我 国危险废物产生量逐年增加,到 2014年,我国工业危险废物的年产生量已经达 到 3633万 t,占全国工业固体废物总量的 2.5%左右。危险废物由于其特殊的危 害性,在运输、利用、贮存、处置等各个环节都具有极高的生态环境风险,加强 危险废物的生态环境风险评价与污染防治,提升危险废物综合利用与处置管理水 平对于保障居民健康和生态环境安全具有重要意义。 本研究基于生态环境风险评价与管理的基础理论与方法,综合分析危险废物 处置对区域生态系统的影响,构建危险废物处置生态环境风险评价的流程、方法 与指标体系。并以辽东湾新区危险废物处置为例,进行生态环境风险进行综合评 价,构建环境管理体系,提出管理对策和建议,为未来开展危险废物处置及环境 管理工作提供科学依据与技术体系支撑。 主要研究结果如下: (1)危险废物对生态环境及人类健康的危害具有直接性、间接性和累积性。 (2)自 2001以来,我国工业危险废物产生量持续增加。我国危险废物主要 分布于大中城市,大中城市的危险废物产生量占全国总产生量的 90%以上。危险 废物主要来自于化学原料和化学制品制造业,非金属矿采选业,有色金属冶炼及 压延加工业,造纸及纸制品业,计算机、通信及其他电子设备制造业,石油加工、 炼焦和核燃料加工业等工业,占我国危险废物总产生量的 80%以上。 (3)基于 DPSIR概念模型构建危险废物处置的生态环境评价框架,将危险 废物处置的生态环境风险评价分为驱动力、压力、状态、影响、响应五个子系统, 构建综合分析的评价指标体系。 (4)辽东湾新区危险废物处置案例的主要污染源包括施工期扬尘、噪声、 废水及固体废弃物的排放,运营期的废气、烟尘、废水及固体废弃物。 (5)通过对辽东湾新区危险废物处置的生态环境风险进行综合评价得出, 生态环境风险综合评价值为 0.550,为较高风险等级。其中,驱动力子系统的生 态环境风险为 0.8,处于极高的生态环境风险等级;其次为状态子系统;响应子 系统的生态环境风险最低,为 0.317,处于一般生态环境风险等级;压力与影响 子系统的生态环境风险居中。
英文摘要: Hazardous wastes are corrosive, flammable, reactive, and toxic. Irrational disposal of hazardous wastes may cause serious harm to human health, regional environment, and ecosystems. In the recent years, with continuous socioeconomic development and increases in industrialization level, hazardous waste production in China was increasing every year. In 2014, annual production of industrial hazardous wastes in China reached 36.33 million tons, accounting for 2.5% of national total industrial solid wastes. Hazardous wastes specifically have very high ecological environmental risk in their transport, use, storage, and disposal. It is of great significance to protect citizens’ health and eco-environmental safety to strengthen the assessment of eco-environmental risk and pollution prevention and control of hazardous wastes, and to improve comprehensive utilization and disposal of hazardous wastes. Based on the theories and methods of ecological environmental risk assessment, this study comprehensively analyzes the influence of hazardous waste disposal on regional ecosystems and constructs the processes, methods and assessment index systems of eco-environmental risk of hazardous waste disposal. Taking the disposal project of hazardous wastes in coastal economic zones of eastern Liaoning Province as an example, the ecological environmental risk was evaluated synthetically, and the environmental management system was developed. This study put forward the management measures and suggestions to provide scientific basis and technology system support for hazardous waste disposal and regional environmental management. The major study results are as follows. (1) The hazardous wastes have direct, indirect and cumulative effects on the eco-environment and human health. (2) The industrial hazardous waste production in China has been increasing rapidly since 2001. The hazardous wastes in China’s large and medium-sized cities accounted for over 90% of the total amount of hazardous waste production in entire China. The hazardous wastes were mainly from chemical raw materials and chemical product manufacturing, non-metallic mining industry, non-ferrous metal smelting and rolling processing industry, paper and paper products industry, computer, communications and other electronic equipment manufacturing, petroleum processing, coking and nuclear fuel processing industry, which accounted for more than 80% of the national total amount of hazardous waste production. (3) Based on the DPSIR conceptual model, a eco-environmental risk assessment framework of hazardous waste disposal project was constructed. The eco-environmental risk assessment of hazardous consists of five subsystems: driving force, pressure, state, influence and response. (4) The main pollution sources of the hazardous waste disposal in coastal economic zones of eastern Liaoning Province included the raise dust, noise, waste water and solid waste during construction, and the waste gas, waste water and solid waste during operation. (5) The assessment results show that the comprehensive eco-environment risk of the hazardous waste disposal project in this case study was 0.550, which belonged to a higher risk level. The eco-environmental risk of driving force subsystem was 0.8, which is in a very high level of eco-environmental risk, followed by the state subsystem. The ecol-environmental risk of the response subsystem was the lowest, which was 0.317, in an ordinary eco-environment risk level.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/38663
Appears in Collections:城市与区域生态国家重点实验室_学位论文

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作者单位: 1.中国科学院生态环境研究中心
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