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题名: 生态环境物联网技术与管理体系研究——以北运河为例
作者: 刘鑫1
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2017-05
授予单位: 中国科学院大学
授予地点: 北京
导师: 赵景柱 ; 董仁才
关键词: 物联网,生态环境,理论,技术,管理体系 ; IoT ; ecological environment ; theory ; technology ; management system
其他题名: Study on the Technology and Management System of Eco-environmental Internet of Things ——a case study of Xianghe Segment of China's Grand Canal
学位专业: 环境经济与环境管理
中文摘要: 随着我国城市化水平的快速提升,生态环境问题呈现出显著的区域性、复合 性和长期性特征,而我国区域生态环境变化的监测与管理一直缺乏长期有效的平 台,迫切需要一种覆盖范围广阔、监测手段多样、采样频率高的生态环境区域化 监管手段。采用物联网技术提高区域生态环境的监测、管理和应急处置能力,将 有利于区域的可持续发展。 本研究基于生态学、环境学、可持续发展等基础理论,将理论与实际工程建 设相结合,开展生态环境物联网的理论与技术研究并应用于实践。主要研究内容 包括生态环境物联网技术体系架构与标准体系、生态环境物联网管理技术体系和 实践案例应用三个方面。 (1)本研究在传统物联网三层结构(即感知层、传输层和应用层)的基础 上,开展生态环境物联网系统架构的顶层设计,提出了包含感知硬件基础、感知 设备选型和感知节点布设的感知层分层设计架构,包含信息传输、信息存储和信 息安全的网络传输层分层设计架构,应用支撑和主要应用专项的应用层分层设计 架构。根据上述技术体系架构,从各分层应包含的元素着手,归纳出了各分层应 该包含的功能、指标、技术、设备等要求,形成标准体系。 (2)本研究创新性的针对生态环境物联网开展管理技术体系构建。针对生 态环境物联网布设过程中的共性问题,提出了公共管理技术的要求;根据生态环 境物联网的不同功能(感知、调控、参与和展示),提出对应不同功能应用阶段 的共性管理技术体系,即感知管理体系、调控管理体系、公众参与管理体系和展 示管理体系。为了评价生态环境物联网管理的效果,构建了生态环境物联网管理 综合评价指标体系,从生态环境物联网高效运行、生态环境物联网多要素感知、 生态环境物联网调控区域生态环境、公众的环境参与体验和展示效果 6个方面综 合评价生态环境物联网管理的效果。 (3)本研究在北运河香河段开展了生态环境物联网系统的实践研究,建成 了多个生态环境物联网子系统,包括公共管理技术子系统、感知管理子系统、调 控管理子系统、参与管理子系统和展示管理子系统。构建了北运河香河段生态环 境物联网环境管理体系框架,并提出了相应的环境管理对策。 研究认为,物联网应用于生态环境保护领域是信息技术发展到一定阶段的必 然结果,也是生态环境领域信息化的必然趋势。生态环境物联网可以提供区域生 态环境监测与管理的新方法,通过快速、连续、大覆盖地监测生态环境关键指标, 评估区域生态环境的现状和发展趋势,达到快速全面反映生态环境问题的目的; 通过生态环境物联网管理技术体系,理论与技术上拓展了物联网在生态环境领域 的应用研究与实践;通过在典型区域开展生态环境物联网试点示范应用,为区域 开发过程中的生态环境保护与管理提供技术支持,进而保障区域生态安全,实现 区域的可持续发展。
英文摘要: With the significant raise of urbanization level, eco-environmental problems present a regional, complicated and persistent character, but there has been lacking a long-term effective platform to monitor and manage the eco-environment changes. Therefore, it is imperative that regional eco-environment supervision should be provided with broader and diversified monitoring means with higher sampling frequency. It is conductive to regional sustainable development by promoting the capacity of regional eco-environmental supervision, management, and emergency response based on Eco-Environmental Internet of Things (EEIoT) technology. This research investigated the theory and technology of EEIoT on the basis of ecology, environmental science, and sustainable development, and then put the basic theory into engineering practices. The contents of this research included three parts: technical framework of EEIoT, management framework of EEIoT, and engineering practices of EEIoT. (1) In this research, the top layer of EEIoT system architecture was designed on the basis of traditional IoT structure that included perception layer, transport layer and application layer. In this system design, the hierarchical architecture of perception layer included hardware underpinnings, equipment selection and node deployment; the hierarchical architecture of transport layer included information transmission, information storage, and information security; the hierarchical architecture of application layer included practice supporting and special applications. According to the technical architecture and elements of every layer components, the demand of function, index, technology, and equipment in each layer was generalized. These demands formed standardization system finally. (2) This research for the first time provided the technology management framework of EEIoT. The research proposed the requirement of management techniques of EEIoT based on the common issues of the EEIoT practice, and the framework of management techniques of EEIoT in different application stages of EEIoT based on the different functions of EEIoT (sensation, regulation, participation and demonstration), which included the management system of sensation, regulation, public participation and demonstration. In order to evaluate the effects of the management of EEIoT, a comprehensive evaluation index system was developed. The effects of EEIoT management were comprehensively evaluated from six aspects, including effective functioning of EEIoT, multi-element perception of EEIoT, regulation of regional eco-environment, environmental public participation experience and display effect. (3) In this study, an empirical analysis of EEIoT system was carried out for Xianghe Segment of China’s Grand Canal. A number of subsystems of EEIoT were established, including public management technology subsystem, perceptual management subsystem, control and management subsystem, participation management subsystem, and presentation management subsystem. Based on this, a system framework of EEIoT management in Xianghe Segment of China’s Grand Canal was constructed, and corresponding environmental management countermeasures were proposed. The research considered that the application of Internet of Things in the field of ecological environment protection is the inevitable result of the development of information technology to a certain degree. EEIoT is the inevitable trend of informatization in the field of eco-environment. EEIoT can provide a new method of regional eco-environment monitoring and management. It can obtain comprehensive ecological and environmental situation of a certain region quickly, by means of key eco-environment indicator monitoring network and subsequent assessment of regional eco-environment status quo and development trend. Through the research of EEIoT management technology system, the applications of the Internet of Things in the field of ecological environment were expanded theoretically and technologically. Through the applications of EEIoT in a demonstration area, it will technical support to the eco-environment protection and management during regional development processes, and thus to protect the regional ecological security and to achieve regional sustainable development.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/38669
Appears in Collections:城市与区域生态国家重点实验室_学位论文

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作者单位: 1.中国科学院生态环境研究中心

Recommended Citation:
刘鑫. 生态环境物联网技术与管理体系研究——以北运河为例[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学. 2017.
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