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题名: 微生物强化净化氨氮污染水体的机制研究
作者: 罗金学1
学位类别: 博士后
答辩日期: 2017-10
授予单位: 中国科学院大学
授予地点: 北京
导师: 庄绪亮 ; 白志辉
关键词: 氨氮污染,微生物强化,异养硝化,生物膜,微生物群落 ; ammonia pollution, microbial augmentation, heterotrophic nitrification,biofilm, microbial community
其他题名: Purification of ammonia polluted waterthrough microbial augmentation
学位专业: 环境微生物学
中文摘要: 氮素污染已经成为我国河湖流域地表水体水质污染的主要问题。氨氮是地表 水体氮素污染的主要成分之一,氨氮的超标是地表水环境污染的一个重要方面,可 以引起水体的富营养化和黑臭现象。对氨氮的削减去除一直被认为是总氮去除的 一个限速步骤。目前并没有形成针对地表河湖水体氨氮污染的有效净化工艺。 已有研究得出,氨氮的生物转化途径主要有三类,分别为好氧条件下的自养硝 化过程、好氧条件下的异养硝化过程及厌氧氨氧化过程。但是在有氧河道中,自养 硝化过程和异养硝化过程对氨氮转化的贡献目前还不清楚,而这却是氨氮污染地 表水体水质净化工艺设计的理论基础。因此本课题研究了不同 TOC/N条件下的氨 氮脱除效率及相应的氨氮污染水体的微生物强化净化方法,同时对相关功能微生 物群落进行了解析。 本研究共设置了 3组对照实验。第一组实验为空白组实验,仅包含取自天然 河道的底泥和上覆水体。第二组为空载填料组实验(VC),含有河道底泥、上覆水 体及悬挂于水体中的微生物附着填料。第三组为预附载微生物填料组(PCC),包 含有河道地泥、上覆水体及悬挂于水体中的已经预先固定有脱氮副球菌 PD1222的 微生物附着填料。反应器进水为人工合成废水,其中氮源仅为氨氮,浓度为 5mg/L。 研究发现,TOC/N的提高有利于水体中氨氮的消减。TOC/N由 1:1提高至 2:1 后,氨氮的脱除率由 20%左右提高到了 90-95%,同时硝态氮的产生率提高了 15.27 倍。由此,我们推论 TOC/N的提高促进了水体中异养硝化反应的进行。与自养硝 化过程相比,水体中异养硝化过程对氨氮硝化转化的贡献率至少占 93.86%。同样 的,异养硝化作用在微生物生物膜氨氮氧化转化过程中也发挥着主导作用。TOC/N 为 2:1时的生物膜硝化速率是 TOC/N为 1:1时的 11.3-21.3倍。预固定 Paracoccus denitrificans PD1222能够加强生物膜法氨氮转化的速率,但是这种加强作用也需要 有机碳源的引入。异养硝化脱除氨氮的效率与 HRT是正相关的关系。在一定 TOC/N 条件下,HRT的减小会使氨氮氧化转化率降低。在本研究中,在维持 TOC/N为 2:1 不变,而 HRT由 21.6hr缩短至 4.6hr的过程中,氨氧化率也由 95%降低至 43%左 右。但是生物膜法比单纯的水体微生物群落调控法更能耐受 HRT缩短的冲击。 作为氨氮氧化功能的行使者,微生物群落也受到了 TOC/N和 HRT改变的影 响。首先,上覆水体和生物膜在不同 TOC/N条件下均具有不同的特征微生物群落。 在上覆水体中, OTU 2(Burkholderiales;Malikia),OTU 3(Pseudomonadales; Acinetobacter),OTU 9(Rhodocyclales;Zoogloea),OTU 3801(Xanthomonadales; Hydrocarboniphaga)是在 TOC/N为 1:1条件下时稳定存在的主要微生物群落;而 OTU 4(Pseudomonadales;Acinetobacter)、OTU 10(Burkholderiales;Sphaerotilus)、 OTU 655(Pseudomonadales;Acinetobacter)是在 TOC/N为 2:1条件下稳定存在的 主要微生物群落。在生物膜中,OTU 2(Burkholderiales;Malikia)、OTU 1 (Rhodobacterales;Paracoccus)和 OTU 36(Rhodocyclales;Dechloromonas)是在 TOC/N为 1:1、HRT为 21.6hr条件下时稳定存在的生物膜主要微生物群落;而 OTU 10(Burkholderiales;Sphaerotilus)、OTU 4(Pseudomonadales;Acinetobacter)和 OTU 19(Sphingomonadales;Novosphingobium)是在 TOC/N为 2:1、HRT为 21.6hr 条件下稳定存在的生物膜主要微生物群落。 其次,在 TOC/N由 1:1提高至 2:1的过程中,OTU 4(Pseudomonadales; Acinetobacter)、OTU 10(Burkholderiales;Sphaerotilus)、OTU20(Burkholderiales; Polynucleobacter)在上覆水体中得到了富集,而 OTU 2(Burkholderiales;Malikia)、 OTU 7(Pseudomonadales;Acinetobacter)、OTU 36(Rhodocyclales;Dechloromonas)、 在上覆水体中的生长受到了抑制。同时,TOC/N提高导致 OTU 10(Burkholderiales; Sphaerotilus)、 OTU 21( Caulobacterales; Brevundimonas)与 OTU 19 (Sphingomonadales;Novosphingobium)在生物膜中得到了富集,而 OTU 1 (Rhodobacterales;Paracoccus)、OTU 36(Rhodocyclales;Dechloromonas)、OTU 28(Lactobacillales;Trichococcus)在生物膜中的生长收到了抑制。 本研究成果对理解地表水体中氨氮的转化过程,并对氨氮污染水体净化工艺 的设计提供了一定的理论基础和参考。
英文摘要: The pollution of nitrogen in surfacewater has become an increasingly serious problem in China. The transformation of ammonia was regarded as the key step in the removal of nitrogen from water. Up to date, no effective technology was developed to purify the ammonia contaminated surfacewater. It was known that the transformation of ammonia is conducted through aerobic autotrophic nitrification (AUNI), aerobic heterotrophic nitrification (HTNI) and anaerobic ammonia oxidation. However, it is unclear of the contribution between the AUNI and HTNI in the ammonia transformation in aerobic surfacewater. Therefore, the ammonia transformation was studied under different TOC/N in this project, followed by the research of the change of microbial communities. It was observed that the increase of TOC/N facilitated the removal of ammonia in water. The removal efficiency of ammonia was elevated from 20% to 90-95% when the TOC/N was changed from 1:1 to 2:1. Meanwhile, the production of nitrate was enhanced 15.27 fold following the increase of TOC/N. Therefore, it was concluded that the raise of TOC/N promoted the occurrence of heterotrophic nitrification in water. Compared to the autotrophic nitrification, the contribution of heterotrophic nitrification in the ammonia transformation was at least 93.86% in the overlaying water. Similarly, the heterothrophic nitrification also played a dominant role in the ammonia transformation in biofilm. The nitrification efficiency in biofilm was elevated 11.3-21.3 fold when the TOC/N increased from 1:1 to 2:1. The immobilization of Paracoccus denitrificans PD1222 promoted the ammonia oxidation in biofilm. It was noted that the bioaugmentation of Paracoccus denitrificans PD1222 immobilization also needed the introduction of TOC into the water. It was also found that the decrease of HRT reduced the ammonia oxidation efficiency when the TOC/N was maintained at 2:1. For example, the efficiency of ammonia oxidation reduced from 95% to 43% when the HRT decreased from 21.6 hr to 4.6 hr. But it needs to point out that the biofilm had higher resistance to the declining of HRT. The microbial community in the overlaying water and biofilm was also affected by the change of TOC/N and HRT. Firstly, the overlaying water and biofilm has different dominant species at different TOC/N. In overlaying water, the microbial community was dominated by OTU 2(Malikia),OTU 3(Acinetobacter) and OTU 9(Zoogloea) at TOC/N of 1:1. While at TOC/N of 2:1, the microbial community of overlaying water was dominated by OTU 4(Acinetobacter),OTU 10(Sphaerotilus)and OTU 655 (Acinetobacter). In biofilm, the microbial community was dominated by OTU 2 (Malikia), OTU 1(Paracoccus)and OTU 36(Dechloromonas)at TOC/N of 1:1 and OTU 10(Sphaerotilus), OTU 4(Acinetobacter)and OTU 19(Novosphingobium) at TOC/N of 2:1. Next, during the change of TOC/N from 1:1 to 2:1, OTU 4 (Acinetobacter)、OTU 10(Sphaerotilus)and OTU20(Polynucleobacter)was enriched in the overlaying while the OTU 2(Malikia), OTU 7(Acinetobacter) and OTU 36 (Dechloromonas)were competed in the overlaying water. Meanwhile, the OTU 10 (Sphaerotilus), OTU 21(Brevundimonas)and OTU 19(Novosphingobium)were enriched in the biofilm when the TOC/N was enhanced, while the OTU 1(Paracoccus), OTU 36(Dechloromonas) and OTU 28(Trichococcus)were restrained in biofilm. The findings in this project may facilitate the revealing of the ammonia transformation mechanism and may provide a theory basement for the designing of purifying technology for ammonia contaminanted surfacewater.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/38674
Appears in Collections:中科院环境生物技术重点实验室_学位论文

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作者单位: 1.中国科学院生态环境研究中心

Recommended Citation:
罗金学. 微生物强化净化氨氮污染水体的机制研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学. 2017.
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