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题名: 北京典型水体环境激素污染特征与风险评价
作者: 彭 程 伟1
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 2017-06
授予单位: 中国科学院大学
授予地点: 北京
导师: 冯兆忠 ; 陈卫平
关键词: 环境激素,生态风险评估,地表水,地下水 ; Endocrine disruptor, Ecological risk assessment, Surface water, Ground water
其他题名: Concetration and Risk Assessment of Environmental Hormones in SufaceWater and GroundWater in Beijing
学位专业: 生态学
中文摘要: 水环境内某些环境激素超过了环境容纳量而积聚,但是常规的污水处理不能有效去除这 类污染物,严重威胁区域生态和居民健康。已有很多研究报道了地表水或地下水内某些环境 激素浓度高于环境安全质量标准,其污染特征与生态风险受到各国科学家的广泛关注。本研 究以北京市典型的地表水和地下水体为对象,系统调查了界面活性剂、合成雌激素、抗生素、 酞酸酯、农药等5 类共50 多种典型环境激素的含量和分布特征,并对其生态风险进行了评价, 提出了对策与建议,以期为北京市水生态系统健康与风险管理提供科学支撑。主要研究结果 如下: (1)4-正壬基酚和对特辛基苯酚这两种界面活性剂在北京市地表水都有较高的检出频 率,其中4-正壬基酚在6 月份和10 月份的检出频率分别为96%和88%,对特辛基苯酚在6 月份和10 月份的检出频率分别为56%和80%。风险分析表明,4-正壬基酚在6 月份地表水中 有60%的样点风险商(RQ)大于1,10 月份有16%的样点风险商大于1;对特辛基苯酚的风 险商都小于1。两种界面活性剂在一些地下水样点也有检出,但风险商都小于1。 (2)双酚A(BPA)、雌酮(E1)、17β-雌二醇(E2)、17α-乙炔基雌二醇(EE2)与 雌三醇(E3),共5 种合成雌激素在各主要水体检出。地表水的平均检出频率为32%(6 月 份)和52%(10 月份),地下水的检出频率为68.4%。10 月份地表水内合成雌激素的平均浓 度11.7 ng/L,高于6月份的平均浓度5.9 ng/L。马驹桥(6 月份和10月份)、高碑店污水厂 排水口(6 月份和10 月份)、榆林庄(6 月份),以及清河污水厂(10 月份)样点BPA 的 雌二醇当量(EEQ)值大于1 ng/L,存在潜在生态风险。地表水环境激素在长子营和王四营 采样点RQ值>1,存在生态风险;地下水中风险值大于1 的样点有丰台、永乐店和庞各庄。 (3)有18种抗生素类环境激素在地表水检出,有11 种抗生素类环境激素在地下水检出。 地表水内磺胺类、四环素类、喹诺酮类、大环內酯类的平均浓度在6 月份分别是34.8ng/L、 0.5 ng/L、44.6 ng/L、3.1 ng/L,在10 月份分别是42.1ng/L、1.6 ng/L、122.3 ng/L、9.2 ng/L。 地下水内磺胺类、四环素类、喹诺酮类、大环內酯类的平均浓度分别是:29.6 ng/L、0.3 ng/L、 7.6 ng/L、0ng/L。地表水有5 种抗生素(环丙沙星、氧氟沙星、恩诺沙星、磺胺甲恶唑、红 霉素)有较高的生态风险,其中在6 月份,环丙沙星有75%、氧氟沙星有21%、恩诺沙星有 25%的,以及磺胺甲恶唑有12%地表水样点的RQ>1;在10 月份,环丙沙星有100%、氧氟 沙星有25%、恩诺沙星有42%、磺胺甲恶唑有29%,以及红霉素有8%地表水样点的RQ>1。这些检测结果表明北京地表水存在抗生素的生态风险。地下水的环丙沙星与恩诺沙星存在较 高的生态风险,环丙沙星有58%样点的RQ>1,仅有采育的地下水的恩诺沙星RQ>1。 (4)邻苯二甲酸二异丁酯(DIBP)与邻苯二甲酸二丁酯(DBP)这2 种酞酸酯类环境 激素只在6 月份的地表水样品中检出,检出率较低,生态风险值均小于1。 (5)敌敌畏和乐果2 种有机磷农药在各主要水体检出,6 月与10 月地表水的敌敌畏平 均浓度分别是9.11 ng/L与4.85 ng/L,地下水的敌敌畏的平均浓度是0.39 ng/L。6月与10月 地表水的乐果平均浓度分别是4.43 ng/L与0.73 ng/L,地下水的乐果的平均浓度是2.81 ng/L。 在地表水和地下水中乐果的单一风险商小于1,有机磷农药的风险主要来自于敌敌畏。 (6)β-HCH、γ-HCH、七氯、环氧七氯、p,p'-DDE、p,p'-DDT、六氯苯,共7 种有机 氯农药在各主要水体检出。6 月份,HCHs、DDTs、六氯苯在地表水内平均浓度分别是9.99 ng/L、16.14 ng/L、2.76 ng/L。地下水内p,p'-DDT、β-HCH、六氯苯、p,p'-DDE、环氧七氯、 γ-HCH的平均浓度分别是20.31 ng/L、10.55 ng/L、9.79 ng/L、4.35 ng/L、4.05 ng/L、3.74 ng/L。 北京地表水和地下水内有机氯农药通过饮水途径引起致癌的风险值的低于国际辐射防护委员 会(ICPR)推荐的最大值,饮用致癌风险小。 北京市典型水体环境激素的风险主要在于合成雌激素与抗生素,地表水风险主要位于两 个污水处理厂(清河与高碑店)与两个养殖场密集区(马驹桥与榆林庄闸),而地下水风险 主要位于长子营、南水回灌区、两个污灌区(庞各庄与采育)。总之,污水处理技术的不足, 以及合成雌激素与抗生素的滥用使得污水处理厂与养殖场成为环境激素的排放源。
英文摘要: With spread of environmental hormones, as well as ineffective sewage treatment, a large number of antibiotics had been poured into water, which was a serious threat to ecological balance and public health. Studies showed that concentration of antibiotics in surface water or ground water was high and its pollution characteristic and ecological risk was widely concerned by scientists around the world. In this study, we investigated surfactants, synthetic estrogens, antibiotics, phthalates and pesticides, more than 50 typical environmental hormones in Beijing. Besides, measures were suggested to take to provide scientific guide for water safety and public health in Beijing. Conclusions were as follows: (1) In surface water and groundwater, two kinds of surfactants such as nonylphenol and octylphenol were detected. The detection rate of nonylphenol was higher than that of octylphenol in surface water or groundwater. The detection rate of nonylphenol and octylphenol in surface water was higher than that of groundwater. The average concentrations of nonylphenol and octylphenol in groundwater were 203.2 ng / L and 1.3 ng / L respectively. The RQ value of octylphenol in surface water and groundwater was less than that in June. There were 10/25 sites where the nonylphenol in surface water had an ecological risk. (2) Estradiols had been detected in surface water and groundwater, which including 5 kinds of synthetic estrogen environmental hormones, mainly BPA and E3. The average concentration of synthetic estrogen in surface water was 11.7 ng / L, which was higher than the average concentration in June (5.9 ng / L). There were several sites where EEQ value of BPA in surface water was greater than 1 ng / L, which indicates a risk. The RQ value of EE2 in the surface water of the Yulin and Gaobeidian Sewage Discharge was greater than 700 (June), and that in surface water of Majuqiao and Yulin greater than 300 (October). Risk value of these sites was particularly so high that measures should be taken in time. (3) Eighteen kinds of antibiotics were detected in surface water of Beijing, and eleven in groundwater. In June, the average concentrations of sulfonamides, tetracyclines, quinolones and macrolides in surface water were respectively 34.8 ng / L, 0.5 ng / L, 44.6 ng / L, 3.1 ng / L, while in October the average concentrations were respectively 42.1 ng / L, 1.6 ng / L, 122.3 ng / L, 9.2 ng / L. The average concentrations of sulfonamides, tetracyclines, quinolones and macrolides in the groundwater were respectively 29.6 ng / L, 0.3 ng / L, 7.6 ng / L, 0 ng / L. Thus, the average concentration of antibiotics in groundwater was lower than that in surface water, while that in June lower than that in October. There were five kinds of antibiotics in surface water that have high ecological risk. In June, RQ value of ciprofloxacin in 75% surface water bodies was large than 1, and that value was 21% for Ofloxacin, 25% for enrofloxacin, and 12% for sulfamethoxazole, while in October that value was 100% for ciprofloxacin, 25% for Fluoxacin, 42% for Enrofloxacin, 29% for sulfamethoxazole, and 8% for erythromycin. The ecological risk of antibiotics in surface water was higher than that in June. There was a high ecological risk of ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin in groundwater. There existed ecological risk of ciprofloxacin in 58% groundwater bodies and that of enrofloxacin in only one site. (4) Phthalatic-acid esters (PAEs) were detected in the surface water in June. There was none PAEs in groundwater. RQ value of PAEs in surface water is less than one, so the ecological risk was low. (5) Two major organophosphorus pesticides were detected in surface water and groundwater. The average concentrations of dichlorvos in surface water were respectively 9.11 ng / L (June) and 4.85 ng / L (October), and that in groundwater was 0.39 ng / L. The average concentrations of dimethoate in surface water were respectively 4.43 ng / L (June) and 0.73 ng / L (October), and in groundwater was 2.81 ng / L. The average concentration of organophosphorus pesticides in surface water in October was lower than that in June. Seven kinds of organochlorine pesticides were detected in surface water and groundwater. In June the average concentrations of HCHs, DDTs and hexachlorobenzene in surface water were respectively 9.99 ng / L, 16.14 ng / L and 2.76 ng / L. While the average concentrations of p,p'-DDT, β-HCH, hexachlorobenzene, p, p'-DDE, epichlorohydrin and γ-HCH in groundwater were 20.31 ng / L, 10.55 ng / L, 9.79 ng / L, 4.35 ng / L, 4.05 ng / L, 3.74 ng / L. RQ values of dimethoate in surface water and groundwater were less than one, and the ecological risk of organophosphorus pesticides was mainly due to dichlorvos. The maximum value of carcinogenicity caused by organochlorine pesticides in surface water was 19.45 × 10-8 a-1, which was lower than the maximum recommended by the International Radiation Protection Committee (ICPR) (5.0 × 10-5 a-1), so drinking risk was low. Carcinogenic drinking risk of organic chlorine in groundwater was small. Ecological risk of environmental hormones is mainly due to the synthesis of estrogen and antibiotics in Beijing. Risk in surface water is mainly located in two sewage treatment plants (Qing-he and Gao-bei-dian) and two farms (Majuqiao and Yulin Zhuang). Risk in groundwater is mainly located in the Zhang-zi-ying, the South water recharge area, two sewage irrigation area (Pang-ge-zhuang and Cai-yv). In short, lack of sewage treatment technology and abuse of estrogen and antibiotic make the sewage treatment plants and farms becoming sources of environmental hormones.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/38682
Appears in Collections:城市与区域生态国家重点实验室_学位论文

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