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题名: 南水北调情景下密云水库多风险源氮磷入库特征分析
作者: 秦丽欢1
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2017-05
授予单位: 中国科学院大学
授予地点: 北京
导师: 李叙勇
关键词: 密云水库,氮磷平衡,内源负荷,水环境容量 ; Miyun Reservoir, N and P mass balance, Internal loading, Water environment capacity
其他题名: The various sources of nitrogen and phosphorus to Miyun Reservoir under the condition of South-to-North Water Transfer Project
学位专业: 生态学
中文摘要: 水资源是人们生存和社会生产的重要基础,就我国而言,水资源的分布存在着严重的南北分布不均匀的现象。南水北调工程是缓解北方水资源短缺的重大工程,密云水库在南水北调进京工程中起到储蓄调剂的功能,做为北京市唯一的地表水源地,保障其水质的安全具有重要的意义,加之在南水北调的前提下,对密云水库带来丰富水源之外,可能也会带来潜在的风险,因此研究在南水北调重大调水工程前提下,密云水库多风险源氮磷输入特征有重要的意义和价值。 本文将以密云水库为研究对象,通过对基础数据(水质水量和气象)收集、空间数据(土地利用类型数据和DEM数据)分析以及野外数据的采集和室内分析(消落带、大气沉降和沉积物)等方法,研究密云水库氮磷入库的来源分布特征,主要结论如下。 (1)南水北调调水工程对密云水库氮磷风险来源的组成有一定影响,来水前上游来水、内源负荷和大气沉降是密云水库主要的氮磷来源,入库氮负荷分别为:上游入库1089.37t,占总量的68.8%,其次是内源氮为227.00t,占总输入氮负荷的14.3%,此外,大气湿沉降、大气干沉降和消落带氮释放负荷量分别为224.93t、33.25t和7.87t,各自分别的比例为14.2%、2.1%和0.5%;入库磷负荷分别为:上游入库河流总磷的负荷量为25.60t,比重为64.9%,其次是内源磷负荷,为7.37t,占比为18.7%,再次是大气干沉降,为2.89t,占比7.3%,随后是消落带和大气湿沉降分别为2.48t和1.07t,占比6.3%和2.7%)。而南水北调来水后,南水北调的入库负荷分别成为氮磷负荷来源的第二和第三大来源,分别占到氮磷入库负荷的(18%和12%)。南水北调对密云水库氮来源的组成影响更为显著。 (2)密云水库入库径流量表现出先减少后恒定的特点,总氮的入库浓度有增加趋势,而总磷的入库浓度近年来有减少趋势,由于受到入库径流和入库氮磷浓度的影响,密云水库总磷的输入呈减少趋势,磷滞留量保持恒定,而总氮的输入呈增加趋势,总氮的滞留量也随着南水北调的水的进入而增加。 (3)将密云水库多风险源模型集成到了密云水库水环境管理平台中,主要包含上游入库负荷、大气沉降、消落带氮磷输入、沉积物内源氮磷输入等几个氮磷来源,通过设定不同的水质目标,研究不同的水文年型和调水量相结合的情况下密云水库氮磷负荷的消减方案。密云水库水环境管理平台,对实现科学研究的可视化、具象化和科学决策密云水库的水环境问题有重要参考意义。本文对密云水库多风险源氮磷入库特征进行了详细、系统的研究和分析,对保障密云水库水环境有较为重要的价值和科学参考,对管理密云水库、制定科学的水质保障措施有重要作用。
英文摘要: Water resource is very fundermental for peoples’live and social production. In our country, the water resource is not equally distributed in the north and source area. The water transfer projection of from the South to the East is an important projection to relieve the pressure of the lack of water in the north of China. Miyun Reservoir takes in a key role on Beijing drinking water supply, so to keep the water safe is very important. Besides, under the condition of the South–North Water Diversion Project, it brings lots of water into Miyun Reservoir, also may bring related risks, as a results, to study the risks of N and P to Miyun Reservoir is very necessary. In this paper, we takes Miyun Reservoir as the object of the study, Based on the method of fundamental data collection such as water quality data and meteorological data, spatial data such as Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data, land use data and field sampling data and laboratory experiment to further research the N and P sources and outs, the conclusions are as follows: (1) The water transfer projection of from the Sourth to the East had effect on the N and P source composition ratio. Before the sourth water arrived in Miyun Reservoir, the upstream rivers, internal sources and atmosphere deposition were the main sources of N and P to the reservoir. The load of N from upstream rivers was1089.37t,took up 68.8%, then was the internal N loading , about 227.00t (14.3%), the wet atmospheric deposition, the dry atmospheric deposition and the contributions from water-level-fluctuating zone (WFLZ) was 224.93t, 33.25t and 7.87t, took up 14.2%, 2.1% and 0.5% respectively. The load of P from upstream rivers was 25.60t,took up 64.9%, then was the internal P loading , about 7.37t (18.7%), the dry atmospheric deposition was 2.89t, took up 7.3%; the contributions from WFLZ and the wet atmospheric deposition was 2.48t and 1.07t, took up 6.3% and 2.7% respectively. (2) The long-term runoff to the reservoir was decreased first and then was stable, the concentration of TN to the reservoir was increased however, the concentration of TP in the recent years was decreased. As the effect of the runoff and the concentration of TN and TP, the upstream of the river of the P input to the reservoir was decreased and the P retention load was stable, the TN load to the reservoir from upstream rivers was increased and N retention load was increased as the south water arrived in the reservoir. (3) The model of various sources of N and P to the Miyun Reservoir was integration to the water environment management platform of the Miyun Reservoir, which consist of upstream river N and load, atmosphere deposition, WFLZ input and internal N and P load. To set different water quality target, the cut off N and P load in the the condition of different hydrological year and water transfer quantity were clear. The water environment management platform of the Miyun Reservoir was great help to the research results visualized and specific, to make scientific decision protect the water environment of the reservoir. In the paper, detailed studies of different N and P sources to the Miyun Reservoir were done. It was great help to manage the reservoir and make scientific decisions to protect the Miyun Reservoir water quality.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/38685
Appears in Collections:城市与区域生态国家重点实验室_学位论文

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作者单位: 1.中国科学院生态环境研究中心
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