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题名: 农村污水治理建设运营的融资与管理模式研究 ——以常熟市为例
作者: 荣益1
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 2017-05
授予单位: 中国科学院大学
授予地点: 北京
导师: 严岩
关键词: 农村污水治理,运营管理,融资模式,PPP,常熟 ; Rural sewage treatment, Operation and management, Financing mode, PPP
其他题名: Finacing and Management Model of construction and operation of Rural Sewage Treatment - A Case Study in Changshu
学位专业: 环境经济与环境管理
中文摘要: 农村污水治理是一项复杂的系统工程,涉及政府、建设运营方、村民等不 同利益主体和技术、经济、管理等各个环节,我国农村污水的治理工作处于起 步阶段,仍面临着建设运营、监督管理、融资模式等诸多问题与挑战。常熟作 为我国县域村镇污水治理综合示范区,近年来进行了诸多实践探索,治理工作 推进力度大、进展快,显著成效。然而,随着治理工作推进与深入,在治理需 求与融资需求规划布局、政府和社会资本合作融资模式( Public-Private Partnership,PPP)的风险控制以及污水设施建设运营的管理等方面仍需要进一 步探索。基于此,本文以我国农村污水治理工作相对领先的常熟市为案例,开 展农村污水治理建设运营融资与管理模式研究,以期为我国农村污水治理工作 提供有益借鉴。 从环境压力、社会经济水平和自然资源三个方面,建立了农村污水治理需 求评价方法与指标,运用模糊综合评价模型,以常熟 10个镇区为评价对象进行 了农村污水治理需求评价,结果表明,虞山镇污水治理需求非常强烈,其次是 碧溪新区和尚湖镇,三镇的投资需求也相对较高;而支塘镇、海虞镇、梅李镇、 古里镇、辛庄镇、董浜镇和沙家浜等镇区的治理需求与投资需求相对较弱。以 实现农村污水处理率 80%为治理目标,测算出常熟仍面临 7500台处理设备的需 求量与 4亿元的资金需求量,同时根据各镇需求程度评价排序,对应布局十个 镇区的具体治理需求与融资需求,为当地政府制定优先与次优先治理目标及合 理布局日后污水治理工作提供依据和参考。 针对常熟农村污水治理的 PPP融资模式,运用层次分析法(AHP),构建 风险层次结构模型,从而分析 PPP融资模式中各类风险对项目重要程度的影响。 结果表明,对于 PPP项目的重要性:宏观层面风险>项目层面风险>市场层面风 险;而从各个指标因素的权重值来看,对农村污水治理 PPP项目风险的影响程 度排序为:政策风险>运营风险>融资风险>设计风险>社会风险>建设风险>法律 风险>合作沟通风险>自然风险>市场风险。根据常熟实际情况,在宏观层面风 险、融资风险发生的概率较小,PPP模式的风险更多地还是来自合作方之间的 内部风险,相关管理部门应协调完善内部合作机制,进行风险管理策略的博弈, 从而有效控制项目风险。 针对农村污水治理建设和运营的管理环节,在部门调研、居民问卷调查等 基础上,分析梳理了当前农村污水治理建设管理和运营管理中存在问题。调查 显示,在建设环节,问题主要表现在顶层系统性规划不足、建设施工质量难以 保障、农户居民配合度不够等;在运行环节,问题主要表现在运行维护技术力 量薄弱、缺乏运行维护的专业化公司、监管机制和制度不健全等,进而针对这 些问题,从建设和运营管理体系的组织构架、职能划分、运行方式、责任机制 等方面提出了建设和运营管理模式的改进方案和对策。
英文摘要: The project of rural sewage treatment is complex and systematic, involving several interested parties, such as government, constructer, operator and residents, and multiple parts in terms of technology, economy and management. In China, the progress of rural sewage treatment is developing, problems in terms of construction, operation, management and financing still remain. Changshu, as the comprehensive demonstration project of rural sewage treatment in China, has made great promote and rapid progress in rural sewage treatment in recent years. However, as the progress goes further, it needs to be further studied in aspects of the treatment and financing demands, the risk control of Public-Private Partnership financing model (PPP), and the management of sewage facilities construction and operation. Thus, this thesis carries out research on the financing and management model of construction and operation of rural sewage treatment in Changshu to provide reference for national wide learning. The urgency of treatment demands for rural sewage of Changshu are evaluated with fuzzy comprehensive evaluation in aspects of environmental stress, socioeconomic level and natural resources. The results show that the demand for sewage treatment in Yushan Town is strong, followed by Bixi New District and Shanghu Town, as well as the three towns’ investment demand. Whereas, the demand for sewage treatment and financing are relatively weak for Zhitang Town, Haiyu Town, Meili Town, Guli Town, Xinzhuang Town, Dongbang Town and Shajiabang Town. 7,500 treatment equipment and 400 million yuan of funds are still needed to achieve rural sewage treatment rate of 80%. The specific demand for equipment and funds of ten studied towns is calculated to provide a basis and reference for local government planning. The AHP approach is used to construct the risk hierarchy model of PPP financing model, afterwards PPP financing risk is analyzed. The results show that in terms of impact on PPP financing, the macro-level risk is larger than project-level risk and larger than market level risk. Based on the weight value of each index factor, the risks sequencing of impact on PPP project is like below: policy risk> operational risk> financing risk> design risk> social risk> construction risk> legal risk> cooperative and communication risk> natural risk> market risk. Due to the macro-level and financing circumstance is stable, the risk of internal cooperation is more essential. Thus, the internal cooperation mechanism and risk management strategy shall be established so as to effectively control project risk. Based on the investigation of rural sewage treatment construction and operation, the problems existing in the management and operation management of rural sewage treatment in the aspects of departmental investigation and resident questionnaire survey. The survey shows that in the construction process, the problem is mainly manifested in the lack of systematic planning at the top level, the construction quality is difficult to protect, the farmer residents are not enough. In the operation, the problem is mainly in the operation and maintenance of technical strength is weak, lack of operation and maintenance of specialization The management mechanism and system are not perfect, and then put forward the improvement plan and countermeasure of construction and operation management mode from the aspects of organization structure, function division, operation mode and responsibility mechanism of construction and operation management system.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/38686
Appears in Collections:城市与区域生态国家重点实验室_学位论文

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作者单位: 1.中国科学院生态环境研究中心
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